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This guideline summarizes pertinent information about aluminum for workers and employers as well as for physicians, industrial hygienists, and other occupational safety and health professionals who may need such information to conduct effective occupational safety and health programs. Recommendations may be superseded by new developments in these fields; readers are therefore advised to regard these recommendations as general guidelines and to determine whether new information is available.
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
* Routes of Exposure
Exposure to aluminum can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.
Effects on Animals: Aluminum metal is an irritant dust of low toxicity in experimental animals. Fine metallic aluminum powders inhaled by rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs did not cause pulmonary fibrosis [NLM 1992]. Rats exposed by inhalation to aluminum dust developed pneumonitis [Proctor et al. 1988]. Inhalation or intratracheal injection of aluminum dust caused infections in the respiratory system of the rats and rabbits exposed [NLM 1992]. Interstitial fibrosis with hyalinosis, emphysema, and hemorrhage were noted and reportedly led to the development of bullous emphysema, bronchopneumonia, and hemorrhagic pneumonia [NLM 1992]. In addition to the alterations of the lungs, changes in the walls of blood vessels, kidneys, spleen, liver, and meninges were also reported [NLM 1992]. Aluminum filings and splinters embedded into the skin did not induce a hypersensitive state [NLM 1992].
Effects on Humans: Aluminum dust is an eye and respiratory tract irritant in humans. Soluble aluminum salts are irritants when inhaled as aerosols [Hathaway et al. 1991]. Although inhalation of aluminum powder of particle size 1.2 um, given over 10- or 20-minute periods several times weekly resulted in no adverse health effects among thousands of workers over several years, several other studies report X-ray evidence of pulmonary fibrosis [Hathaway et al. 1991]. Some patients on long-term hemodialysis develop speech disorders, dementia, or convulsions. This syndrome is associated with increased concentration of aluminum in serum, brain, muscle, and bone [Amdur et al. 1991; Hathaway et al. 1991]. There is some evidence that Alzheimer's disease may be linked to aluminum content in the body [Amdur et al. 1991]. Analysis of the aluminum content in the brains of persons dying from Alzheimer's have shown increased levels, although brain aluminum levels vary greatly. A second correlating factor is that neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been identified in both aluminum encephalopathy and in Alzheimer's disease [Amdur et al. 1991]. However, it has been shown that the NFTs produced by the two conditions are structurally and chemically different and that NFTs are present in several other neurological disorders. It appears that the aluminum content of the brain is less an issue relating to exposure to aluminum than an issue of a blood-brain barrier defect or compromise of some kind [Amdur et al. 1991].
Originally posted by Amaterasu
reply to post by Aloysius the Gaul
You do understand that the molecular make-up is all-important. Cyanide is deadly, cyanocobalamin is a vitamin.
Also, homeopathic remedies use such a small amount of the stuff in water that frequently it cannot be detected by even the most sensitive of equipment.
What is Your agenda here?