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They are only about 1/16 of an inch and are found in and around sand and mud near springs, ponds, creeks, lakes, and trees. Larvae can live year-round, but adult sand flies are most active in June, July, and August.
Like mosquitoes and buffalo gnats, sand flies survive by sucking blood from humans and animals. Females need blood to survive, whereas males do not need it and cannot bite.
On windy days, sand flies are less active. They are attracted to warm body temperatures; so outdoor manual workers are especially susceptible to sand fly bites. Bites produce reactions in humans such as swelling or rashes. Extreme swelling, itching, or other allergic reactions require medical attention. If you have these symptoms, take an antihistamine and go to the nearest hospital immediately.