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Russia's population has fallen by 2.2 million to just under 143 million as a result of low fertility and a high mortality rate among men.
It was unclear exactly what "projects" Putin had in mind to stimulate the birthrate but Russia makes cash payments to mothers when their children are born and other more imaginative measures have been used.
In September 2007, the city of Ulyanovsk organised a day of conception, when workers were encouraged to go home and have sex.
Prizes including a 4x4 car were given to those who gave birth on 12 June, Russia Day, the following year.
Putin indicated that fertility was already on the rise. "The main thing is to keep up the tempo," he said. Modernisation of healthcare would lead to greater longevity, he added.