C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 09 PARIS 001698
E.O. 12958: DECL: 09/09/2018
TAGS: PREL PINR ECON MARR PHUM XA FR
SUBJECT: FRANCE'S CHANGING AFRICA POLICY: PART III
(MILITARY PRESENCE AND OTHER STRUCTURAL CHANGES)
Â¶29. (C) In sum, French military objectives in Africa
parallel the non-military aspects of Sarkozy's Africa policy
in terms of strengthening African capabilities; reducing, if
not ending, African dependence on France; promoting openness
and transparency; abandoning colonial-era sentiments and
"special" treatment; engaging the EU and other bodies into
French-led programs; and identifying and exploiting shared
interests and priorities. Ancillary benefits would include
increased commitment to democratization, meritocracy,
professionalism, and self-reliance.
S E C R E T SECTION 01 OF 03 PARIS 000174
E.O 12958: DECL: 02/08/20
TAGS: PREL MOPS MARR FR IR AF NATO
SUBJECT: SECRETARY OF DEFENSE GATES'S MEETING WITH FRENCH FOREIGN
MINISTER KOUCHNER, FEBRUARY 8, 2010
Â¶14. (C) Kouchner then raised NATO, declaring that France was ready to
play its role in defining the Alliance's future strategy. He said that
General Abrial (Supreme Allied Commander - Transformation) has offered
input, but emphasized that it was critical to come up with real
strategy that we could explain in debates in Parliament. Kouchner
stressed that we needed to clarify NATO's roles and missions, as well
as its role in combating the threats of terrorism, poverty and
oppression. SecDef agreed that the Strategic Concept should deal with
21st century security threats Q with an emphasis on the word
"security." He said the Strategic Concept should also incorporate
lessons learned from Afghanistan - particularly the need for
comprehensive civil-military strategies and better partnership between
NATO and the EU and UN.
Global private equity firm Carlyle Group plans to open offices in Johannesburg and Lagos and start investing in capital growth ventures and buyouts in the fast-growing region.
Washington D.C.-based Carlyle, which has $16.6 billion of assets under management in emerging markets, said it would begin with investments in the consumer goods, financial services, agriculture, infrastructure and energy sectors.
Carlyle plans to start fundraising for a fund to invest in sub-Saharan Africa and is targeting about $500 million, said a source familiar with the planning.
The firm finished raising a Middle East and North Africa fund of $500 million in 2009.
"The entrance of a global player like Carlyle into sub-Saharan Africa is a testament to the region's progress and prospects and will attract more capital and talent to the region," Danie Jordaan, Carlyle's sub-Saharan Africa co-head, said in a statement.
"We also believe Carlyle's global network will facilitate the growth of its sub-Saharan Africa investments in the major international markets."
Helped by a 2002-2008 commodities boom, sub-Saharan Africa has enjoyed nearly a decade of robust growth, accompanied by relative political stability and deepening capital markets.
Â¶37. (C) But, will France-Afrique and old habits ever
completely fade? One MOD contact, not known for
sentimentality, believes that certain parts of France-Afrique
will endure, if for no other reason than the common use of
the French language and long intertwined histories.
Prefacing his remarks by noting their lack of "political
correctness" and their triteness, he says that the
relationship was for a long time similar to a parent-child
relationship. "Now, the child is an adult, capable of and
deserving of more autonomy, yet still welcoming our help and
guidance. What Sarkozy is doing is kicking the fledgling out
of the nest, which is sort of the way he approaches a lot of
problems. A heavy dose of what you might call 'tough love,'
not always dispensed lovingly. Eventually, the now-grown
adult child will be replaced by something resembling a cousin
or a nephew. We will grow farther apart and less apt to look
to each other reflexively, but some familial bond will
remain, however much we may seek to deny it, and familial
bonds are always to be nurtured. Our job is to make sure
that this inevitable drifting apart takes place positively on
both sides, does not completely extinguish the bond, and,
most importantly, does not turn into an estrangement. That
would be a loss for everyone -- French, Africans, and
One of the U.S. companies with a potentially huge interest in those discussions is Boeing Co., which has been trying to convince Brazil to buy 36 of its F/A-18 Super Hornets – made mostly in St. Louis – for Brazil’s long-delayed F-X2 fighter aircraft program.
Such a deal seemed impossible as late as September 2009, when Brazil’s former president, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, announced his preference for the Rafale fighter made by France’s Dassault aerospace firm. The next-generation F-X2 aircraft would replace Brazil’s aging fleet of French Mirage fighters, U.S.-made F-5 Tigers and Italian-made jets.
But Rousseff re-opened the bidding for the F-X2 program after she was elected last fall as Brazil’s first female president. And she reportedly told U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner recently that she regards the F/A-18 Super Hornet as the best fighter aircraft among the three finalists, which include France’s Rafale and an aircraft manufactured by Sweden’s Saab.
But there is a major catch to the potential deal, which media reports have said could amount to $6 billion. Brazil wants the U.S. government to authorize transfers of some proprietary technology that would eventually help Brazil develop its defense industry. According to some reports, the Brazilians also want to sell some of their own military transport aircraft to the U.S. military.
Gaddafi has long promoted stronger union within the organisation and previously outlined his vision for a continent-wide government.
He has also previously said he wants a single African military force, a single currency and a single passport for Africans to move within the continent.
Chavez made this simile during his television and radio program “Hello President” broadcast live from the Bolivar Square in Caracas. The president also said that the right-wing in Latin America was being organized to attack the Bolivian Alliance of the Americas (ALBA) and the Union of South American Nations (Unasur).
Chavez said that the U.S. government would not be able to stop the development of the ALBA in Central America despite the coup in Honduras.
Chavez added that the coup against Honduran ousted president Manuel Zelaya was supported by the United States.
“The U.S. Empire” and the right-wing try to make the next government of Brazil to be subordinated to the imperialist mandate “which also will be terrible for the unity of South America,” Chavez said.
Tarhouni, a U.S. based academic and exile opposition figure, was designated last week by the Benghazi-based national council to steer its financial and oil policy.
He said the rebel leadership had set up an escrow account monitored by auditors that would be used to receive revenues from oil sales.
The rebels also plan to take out loans backed by Libya's sovereign wealth fund, he said.
"We would keep the fund frozen until the entire country is liberated," said Tarhouni. "Instead, what we will do is take loans backed by the sovereign fund."
He said he saw no serious liquidity problems for the rebels, who were well placed in terms of foreign currency reserves. (Writing by Edmund Blair and Tom Pfeiffer in Cairo; Editing by Elizabeth Fullerton and David
Ali A. Tarhouni, a senior lecturer in the Foster School of Business at the University of Washington, has been named finance minister by the Libyan opposition national council. The group is arranging a transitional government in the event Moammar Gadhafi is ousted from power.
“Tarhouni understands the Western mentality,” opposition spokeswoman Iman Bugaighis told Reuters. Rita Zawaideh, owner of Caravan-Serai Tours in Seattle and a friend of Tarhouni, confirmed that he has been named to the post.
“We hope Ali and his relatives are safe and not in harm’s way. We're also proud to have one of our longtime faculty members playing a significant role in Libya’s transitional government,” said James Jiambalvo, dean of the Foster School.
Tarhouni, 60, holds a doctorate in economics and finance from Michigan State University.
* Rebel official sees oil shipments within a week
* Says rebel-held eastern Libya has no money problems
* Sees Brega terminal operating again for domestic supply
By Alexander Dziadosz
BENGHAZI, Libya, March 27 (Reuters) - A senior Libyan rebel official said on Sunday Gulf oil producer Qatar had agreed to market crude oil produced from east Libyan fields which are no longer in the control of Muammar Gaddafi.
"We contacted the oil company of Qatar and thankfully they agreed to take all the oil that we wish to export and market this oil for us," said Ali Tarhouni, a rebel official in charge of economic, financial and oil matters.
"Our next shipment will be in less than a week," Tarhouni told reporters in the rebel-held eastern city of Benghazi.
State-owned Qatar Petroleum said it had no comment.
GLOBALIST TARGET: The Central Bank of Libya offices in Tripoli.
The CBL is currently a 100% state owned entity and represents the monetary authority in The Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The financial structure and general operation procedures of a state bank is of course much different than that of an American or European based central bank. Form starters it is not privately owned, for-profit bank with a undisclosed list of private shareholders like the US Federal Reserve and the Bank of England are. Libyan constitutional law establishing the CBL stipulates that its central bank maintains monetary stability in Libya and promotes sustained growth of its national economy. Libya also holds more bullion as a proportion of gross domestic product than any country except Lebanon, according to the London-based World Gold Council using January data from the International Monetary Fund. The value of gold is based on the March 25 close of $1,429.74 an ounce.
Will this gold remain in Libya once Allied forces have taken control of Tripoli, or will it lost, or exchanged for pallets upon pallets of paper aka US dollars?
Sarkozy blocked by EU allies
March 01, 2011
GERMANY and France faced a backlash from some of their key EU allies in their drive to establish a European competitiveness pact in return for measures to reinforce the euro-zone bailout fund.
At an EU summit in Brussels, President Sarkozy and German chancellor Angela Merkel proposed limits on business taxes, national debt and pension ages and a scrapping of
index-linked pay rises.
Britain, Belgium, Sweden, the Netherlands and Austria were joined by Poland and Romania in expressing opposition.
Belgium’s caretaker prime minister, Yves Leterme, said he was against any plan that included doing away with index-linked wage increases.
"There must be more economic co-operation, but member states must be left the room to carry out their own policies. Each member state has its own accents, its own traditions," he said.
The Franco-German initiative would see a new inter-governmental body policing fiscal discipline and economic policy harmonisation throughout the euro-zone.
President Sarkozy said Germany and France were working "hand in glove" to defend the single currency. "We want to ensure the convergence of different European economies ... We therefore agree on a structural plan that is designed to respond to the challenges that Europe faces," he said.
France Takes Control of Airport in Ivory Coast
By STEVEN ERLANGER
Published: April 3, 2011
PARIS — French forces in coordination with the United Nations took over the Ivory Coast’s main airport on Sunday so that planes could land and foreigners evacuated as fighting continued in Abidjan between rival presidents.France said it has sent another 300 troops, bringing its peace-keeping forces up to about 1,400 in the Ivory Coast, said Col. Thierry Burkhard, a French Defense Ministry spokesman. Nearly 1,700 foreigners, half of them French, have taken shelter at a French military camp close to the airport, and France acted to ensure that they and others could be evacuated if necessary, Colonel Burkhard said.
Fighting continued on Sunday between troops loyal to the elected president, Alassande Ouattara, and those loyal to the incumbent, Laurent Gbagbo, who refuses to recognize the election results and leave office despite Mr. Ouattara’s election having been endorsed by the African Union. Mr. Ouattara’s forces have swept south to enter the commercial capital, Abidjan, where Mr. Gbagbo remained.French troops were there to support the United Nations mission in the Ivory Coast, known as ONUCI, although the French government has said clearly that Mr. Gbagbo lost the election and must leave office. The Gbagbo camp on Sunday called the French “an army of occupation.”
The United States also called for Mr. Gbagbo to step down immediately in a statement by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. “Gbagbo is pushing Cote d’Ivoire into lawlessness,” her statement said on Sunday. “He must leave now so the conflict may end.” She also called on Mr. Ouattara’s troops “to respect the rules of war and stop attacks on civilians.”
Why Sarkozy Went to War
My philosopher made me do it! France's president needed help taking down Gaddafi. He got it from the intellectual swashbuckler Bernard-Henri Lévy.
(Page 1 of 4)
Eric Feferberg / AFP-Getty Images (left); Patrick Kovarik / AFP-Getty Images
Nicolas Sarkozy (left) and Bernard-Henri Levy
In their favored haunts all across the city, at the bar of the Hotel Raphael near the Arc de Triomphe, in the tearooms of the Lutetia on the Left Bank and the Bristol on the Right Bank—a long way, in short, from the carnage in the Libyan desert—the Paris literati are bantering nonstop about the nuances of French President Nicolas Sarkozy’s somewhat puzzling decision to lead their country and the Western world to war. Not a few have been amused, or chagrined, or both, to learn that one of their own, the ever-so-flamboyant (some would say insufferable) philosophe Bernard-Henri Lévy had a pivotal role in prompting the allies’ intervention. “I might write a book about it myself,” says the man commonly known as BHL—by far the most controversial public intellectual in France—as he settles into the Raphael’s dark red-velvet upholstery.
Returning to Paris, Lévy became famous as the young founder of the New Philosophers (Nouveaux Philosophes) school. This was a group of young intellectuals who were disenchanted with communist and socialist responses to the near-revolutionary upheavals in France of May 1968, and who articulated a fierce and uncompromising moral critique of Marxist and socialist dogmas. Throughout the 1970s, Lévy taught a course on epistemology at the Université de Strasbourg and he taught philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure. It was in 1977, on the television show Apostrophes, that Lévy was presented, alongside André Glucksmann, as a nouveau philosophe. In the very same year he published Barbarism with a Human Face (La barbarie à visage humain), arguing that Marxism was inherently corrupt.
 Intellectual involvement
In 1981 Lévy published L'Idéologie française ("The French Ideology"), arguably his most influential work, in which he offers a dark picture of French history. It was strongly criticized for its journalistic character and unbalanced approach to French history by some of the most respected French academics — including Raymond Aron (see his Memoirs).
Lévy was one of the first French intellectuals to call for intervention in the Bosnian War in the 1990s, and spoke out early about the alleged Serbian concentration camps. He referred to the Jewish experience in the Holocaust as providing a lesson that mass murder cannot be ignored by those in other nations.
When his father died in 1995, Lévy became the manager of the Becob company, until it was sold in 1997 for 750 million francs to the French entrepreneur François Pinault.
At the end of the 1990s, he founded with Benny Lévy and André Glucksmann an Institute on Levinassian Studies at Jerusalem.
The tensions with certain African presidents overshadow a more important issue: France’s dependence upon Africa as a validation of its geopolitical clout. What is called Francophone Africa stretches from the deserts in the north down into central Africa. But France’s ability — and willingness — to expend financial resources and maintain influence in Africa has declined in recent years.
France always has backed up its claim that it is a leading power in world affairs by wielding influence in Africa. France has had access to Africa due to its former colonial presence on the continent: influence with a host of African countries increases Paris’ dominance over vast natural resources, sea-lanes and markets. However, over the last few decades, this influence has declined as the United States has pushed into African affairs and the state of the French economy has limited Paris’ ability to finance African policy objectives.
Now, Paris has a greater need to appear powerful because of its apparent inability to stop a U.S. war on Iraq. But rather than appearing more politically potent, France instead looks more and more desperate. The country’s desperation over its apparent global impotence could lead Paris to adopt more radical policies in the coming days. And the one place it still has the ability — albeit limited — to project power is Africa.
UN, French forces attack Gbagbo bases in Ivory Coast
ABIDJAN – French and UN helicopters fired on the Ivory Coast presidential palace and bases of Laurent Gbagbo Monday as elected president Alassane Ouattara launched an all-out push to make him step down.
The helicopters targeted the presidency, Gbagbo's residence and military barracks in the main city Abidjan, a UN official said, hours after fighters for Ouattara launched a new offensive after a months-long election dispute.
Heavy artillery fire and explosions shook downtown Abidjan as the offensive raged into the evening, AFP journalists reported.
Helicopters with the UN mission, UNOCI, "fired on the Agban and Akuedo military camps as well as the palace and presidential residence," mission spokesman Hamadoun Toure said.
"We are working with the French force Licorne, in line with our mandate and the UN resolution 1975," he added.
France makes big bets in Libya, Ivory Coast
By JAMEY KEATEN, Associated Press
Tuesday, April 5, 2011 at 10:49 a.m.
PARIS — This year, in both Libya and Ivory Coast, one country has launched military strikes and dragged the international community into action against entrenched autocrats: France.
It's the same France that vigorously opposed the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq eight years ago and has advocated trying every possible approach before bringing in the guns in other international crises.
Analysts say the extraordinary turnaround may be rooted in a revival by President Nicolas Sarkozy of traditional French notions of high-minded interventionism, as well as an attempt by the French leader to ease Europe away from its longtime dependence on the U.S. security umbrella.
At a time of upheaval in the Arab world and Asia's rising economic might, experts say, France wants to boost Europe's relevance with tough, human rights-based military interventions, and quash lingering rumblings about the continent's decline.
“There is a new trend in the Security Council in which the responsibility to protect principle is gaining a new hold,” said Stéphane Crouzat, spokesman for the French mission to the United Nations. Invoking past conflicts in Rwanda, Darfur and Bosnia, he added: “There is a desire to intervene before war crimes or ethnic cleansing can take place.”