It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Thank you.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
uinal (1 uinal = 20 kin = 20 days)
tun (1 tun = 18 uinal = 360 days = approx. 1 year)
katun (1 katun = 20 tun = 7,200 days = approx. 20 years)
baktun (1 baktun = 20 katun = 144,000 days = approx. 394 years)
The Tzolkin date is a combination of two "week" lengths.
While our calendar uses a single week of seven days, the Mayan calendar used two different lengths of week:
■a numbered week of 13 days, in which the days were numbered from 1 to 13
■a named week of 20 days, in which the names of the days were
The length of the Tzolkin year was 260 days and the length of the Haab year was 365 days. The smallest number that can be divided evenly by 260 and 365 is 18,980, or 365×52; this was known as the Calendar Round.
Evidence for an ancient 360-day calendar abounds. The ancient Egyptians used such a calendar, which was very close to a classical lunar calendar.
Nor were the Egyptians the only ones. The Assyrians also used a calendar having 360 days, and counting months from waxing crescent to waxing crescent. The Babylonians must also have used a 360-day calendar, because 360 is a common number in their divisions of the skies and of the basic geometric figure, the circle. (In fact, Western civilization inherits the unit of angle measure, the degree, as a 1/360th part of a full circle, from the Babylonians.) The ancient Persian empire (modern Iran) used a 360-day calendar as recently as the seventh century BC, at which time they added five days to a year to make it even with their planting seasons. One also finds a 360-day calendar in ancient Brahman (the priestly class in India), Mayan, and Aztec tradition.
Astronomers have generally been at a loss to explain why so many ancient civilizations (including the Babylonians who, some say, invented astronomy) could have made such errors in the length of the year. But the problem, to be more precise, is why they all made the same error. A 360-day calendar must have had some basis in fact—and indeed the Egyptians understood, perhaps more readily than any of their contemporaries, that a 360-day year was not an error at all, but was the original length of the year.
Immanuel Velikovsky, in Worlds in Collision, incorrectly assumed that the length of the actual year had changed. He believed that the planets Mars and Venus had somehow passed close enough to Earth to impart enough energy to it to move it to a higher orbit than it had originally. Thus he believed that the actual, physical period of the earth around the sun had changed. But he never once showed how Mars or Venus could have made such a close pass at the earth, and neither has anyone else attempted it since.
But if the length of the year did not change, then the length of the day must have changed. But clearly the length of the month changed as well—for if the day had become shorter but the month did not change, then a month should have more days in it, not fewer.
Respecting the earth, one may actively cite both the geographical mile and also the nautical mile as examples of real distance measures derived from angular ‘sweeps’ over the surface of the planet. In the case of the former, the geographical mile is the arc length distance swept out over the surface of the earth by a single minute of arc upon the circular plane of the earth’s equator; equal to 1/21600 of the earth’s equatorial circumference. By contrast, the nautical mile is a unit measure based upon the total circumference of the earth from pole to pole, which is elliptical in nature; being also 1/21600 of such a surface circumference.
Based upon the known dimensions of the earth, the actual values of these two noted measures may be calculated as follows:
Known Earth Dimensions:
Equatorial Circumference = 24902.4 statute miles
Elliptical (pole to pole) Circumference = 24860.2 statute miles
Therefore:
Geographical mile = (24902.4 x 5280) / 21600 = 6087.25333…feet
Nautical mile = (24860.2 x 5280) / 21600 = 6076.93777…feet
As one can see, the nautical mile is just less than the geographical mile; a result of the planet being compressed along its axis due to its daily rotation, causing the earth to expand outwards at its equator. Indeed, the very dynamics of this readily accounts for the fact that the equator of the earth is circular and the polar circumference of the earth is elliptical. (The plane of the equator is at 90 degrees to the planet’s axis of spin).
With the above facts established, one is thus bound to suspect almost intuitively then that were indeed the earth to have once possessed a yearly orbit of precisely 360 days, then certain of its other primary physical characteristics, would also have been different; specifically, the physical circumference of the earth itself.
Moreover, in taking this point further; considering the exacting nature of an earth year of precisely 360 days one would suspect that were the earth in fact to have possessed such a year, it would also have simultaneously possessed a physical circumference of such measure, so as to actually be in harmony with the very value of its orbital period i.e that 360 days fully completes one full journey about the sun. And one would therefore expect also, what must be some sort of lawful association between an increase of the earth year (from an ideal of 360 days to its present value), and an accompanying change to the physical size of the earth.
But can this be demonstrated though?
Prior to Noah's flood around 9600 BC there were evidently
290 days in an Earth year. After Noah's flood it appears
there were 360 days in an Earth year till 701 BC. After 701
BC there were 365 and 1/4 days in an Earth year. It also
seems Mars used to pass very close to the Earth every
few years during this time. Around 1400 BC the Earth
experienced the long day of Joshua. Around 701 BC
the shadow of the sundial turned backward 10 "mallah"
or 100 degrees, the Earth's year lengthened to 365.25
days, and Mars moved quite a bit further away from
the Sun. In order for the Earth and Mars to have an increase
in the number of days in their years they would have had to
move further away from the Sun. In order for the Earth system
and Mars to move further away from the Sun they would have
to of gained a specific amount of angular momentum while
another massive enough planet that passed within the Earth's
sphere of influence lost that same amount of angular momentum.
Originally posted by indigothefish
This one hit me today out of no where, i had remembered reading somewhere that the Earth actually used to orbit around the Sun in a just slightly slower manner than it does today. The Earth year used to be 360 before it changed to 365.
Originally posted by Danbones
Not to be oppositional but,
planetary speed of rotation has what to do with distance from the sun again?
there is more than one variable here
So now the best thing to do would be to try and find out apporximately when scientists agree the Earth orbited around at 360 days/orbit. Can anyone find some data on that?
Over time, Earth's days have been getting longer and longer.
Originally posted by this_is_who_we_are
So now the best thing to do would be to try and find out apporximately when scientists agree the Earth orbited around at 360 days/orbit. Can anyone find some data on that?
This might help. I searched Google Scholar with the exact search term "360 day year" and narrowed the search in advanced scholar search (preferences) to physics, astronomy and platetary science. There are only about 50 results, but this one caught my eye. I haven't looked through the rest of the results yet.
The sensitivity of the African-Asian monsoonal climate to orbital parameter changes for 9000 years BP in a low-resolution general circulation model
ccr.aos.wisc.edu...edit on 11/16/2010 by this_is_who_we_are because: typos
Originally posted by indigothefish
So basically this source you provided says that the first day when earth was formed was about 6 hours, and it only keeps increasing. So that would have to mean our rotation is slowing down... the source you provided says this is due to the gravity of the sun and the moon.
very interesting, but i'm still looking for any something scientific with exact dates corresponding to changes in day length/ days in year
Originally posted by ldyserenity
reply to post by indigothefish
Pretty interesting stuff, but if we now have 365 days a year, wouldn't it be common sense that the Earth would orbit faster, not slower to make a 360 day year? Just saying.
Well the rotation would have to slow to make longer days, but orbit accounts for a year because of seasons right? So it could be either the rotation slows or the orbit speeds up right?