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Scientists at Germany's Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum have succeeded to genetically modify Drosophila (fruit fly) larvae allowing them to smell blue light.
The olfactory neurons of the only one millimeter sized genetically modified Drosophila larvae are all capable of producing the protein that is activated by light. The researchers can freely select which of the 28 cells will ultimately be light-sensitive using genetic markers. Prof. Störtkuhl explained that they were able to either activate cells which normally register repulsive odors and subsequently cause an aversion response, or cells that sense attractive odors such as banana, marzipan or glue. The activated neurons send an electrical signal if they are stimulated with blue light at a wavelength of 480 nm. The larva thus has the impression that it perceives odors. The experiment shows that it is possible by inserting photo activated proteins into neurons photo stimulation can produce an olfactory behavior in these larvae , whereas genetically unchanged larvae generally avoid light.