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Division 6.1: Poisonous material is a material, other than a gas, which is known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transportation, or which, in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity:
Is presumed to be toxic to humans because it falls within any one of the following categories when tested on laboratory animals (whenever possible, animal test data that has been reported in the chemical literature should be used):
1.Oral Toxicity: A liquid with an LD50 for acute oral toxicity of not more than 500 mg/kg or a solid with an LD50 for acute oral toxicity of not more than 200 mg/kg.
2.Dermal Toxicity. A material with an LD50 for acute dermal toxicity of not more than 1000 mg/kg.
3.Inhalation Toxicity: A dust or mist with an LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of not more than 10 mg/L; or a material with a saturated vapor concentration in air at 20 °C (68 °F) of more than one-fifth of the LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of vapors and with an LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of vapors of not more than 5000 ml/m³; or
Is an irritating material, with properties similar to tear gas, which causes extreme irritation, especially in confined spaces.
Sodium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NaF. This colorless solid is a source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications.
Sodium fluoride is classed as toxic by both inhalation (of dusts or aerosols) and ingestion. In high enough doses, it has been shown to affect the heart and circulatory system, and the lethal dose for a 70 kg human is estimated at 5–10 g.
In the higher doses used to treat osteoporosis, plain sodium fluoride can cause pain in the legs and incomplete stress fractures when the doses are too high; it also irritates the stomach, sometimes so severely as to cause ulcers.
In high concentrations, soluble fluoride salts are toxic and skin or eye contact with high concentrations of many fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, NaF, the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 1–10 grams. A lethal dose is approximately 28 mg per kilogram of body mass.
Poisoning comes from ingesting a large amount of fluoride in a short period of time. Ingesting 3–5 mg/kg may cause symptoms to appear, while the estimated lethal dose is 5–10 g (32–64 mg/kg) in adults and 16 mg/kg in children. Severity of symptoms depends upon the amount of fluoride ingested. These include abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysphagia, hypersalivation, mucosal injury, nausea, vomiting. Electrolyte abnormalities including hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, and hypomagnesemia may occur. Neurological symptoms include headache, muscle weakness, hyperactive reflexes, muscular spasms, paresthesia seizures, tetanic contractions, and tremors. In severe cases, multi organ failure will occur. Death typically results from cardiac arrest, shock, widening of QRS, and various arrhythmias occur.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid.
Colorless when pure, older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Fuming nitric acid is characterized as white fuming nitric acid and red fuming nitric acid, depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present. At concentrations above 95% at room temperature, it tends to develop a yellow color due to decomposition.
Sodium hypochlorite is a strong oxidizer. Products of the oxidation reactions are corrosive. Solutions burn skin and cause eye damage, particularly when used in concentrated forms. However, as recognized by the NFPA, only solutions containing more than 40% sodium hypochlorite by weight are considered hazardous oxidizers. Solutions less than 40% are classified as a moderate oxidizing hazard (NFPA 430, 2000).
reply to post by acrux
If these chemicals are so safe for us to drink, why put up such warning signs listing it as being so dangerous (besides being an industrial worksite).