universal medical insurance is NOT socialized medicine -- according to world experts
It's absolutely wrong for American people to think that when you have universal social insurance then you're going to have socialized
Sick around the world -- does universal coverage mean
Prof. Karl Lauterbach whole interview
Health economist and member of German parliament
The German health care system is unique in its attempt to combine competition among sickness funds [nonprofit health insurers] on the one hand and a
universal coverage plan on the other hand. Most health care systems are either one or the other, so you either have private insurance and competition
but not everyone is covered for everything, or you have a single-payer system. So the ideal types are like the American system on the one hand or the
Scandinavian or U.K. systems on the other end.
Germany tries to combine the advantages. Everyone is covered; all sickness funds have to provide a comprehensive benefit package; ... and there is
nevertheless competition for price and quality between the sickness funds. ...
See, we're confused by that because, to an American, the reason companies compete is to make more profit, but these sickness funds aren't making a
profit, are they?
No, they're not permitted to make a profit. Sickness funds do not want to perish. They want to survive and grow, and the management is better paid if
the sickness fund is growing. The management is basically losing its job and its prestige if the sickness fund is becoming smaller.
So the idea is that there is enough of an incentive for competition, even if it is nonprofit competition. Not every form of competition that works is
for profit, and the nonprofit competition in health care, in my view, is actually a good solution. ...
... Would you say that Germany has socialized medical care?
No, it's not a socialized system, because you can pick your insurance, public or private. Many people can even opt [out], and the sickness funds
compete for members. You have free hospital or physician choice; there are very few limits on choice in the system. ... In a socialized system,
everything is planned; in Germany, basically everything is open for nonprofit competition.
For me, another definition would be, who owns the facilities? Are the hospitals private?
Roughly 10 percent of the hospitals are private and for profit, 90 percent are nonprofit hospitals, and about 100 percent of all office physicians are
for a profit.
Prof. Naoki Ikegami whole interview
Health economist, Keio University School of Medicine
We have a debate going on about health care in America. Some of the candidates basically say that anything in a foreign country is socialized
medicine. Is Japan using socialized medicine?
Yeah. I mean, ... this is all part of the social health insurance system, so it is socialized medicine. For the government to decide unilaterally that
the prices would go up or down, this is a socialized system.
Does the government own the hospitals?
No. ... The federal government owns only 10 percent. ... Ten percent is for the voluntary organizations. Eighty percent is truly private.
That's a higher percentage of private hospitals than in the U.S., isn't it?
The doctors are privately employed businesspeople, is that correct?
Two-thirds of our doctors are employed by hospitals. One-third are private practitioners working in clinics, but they do not have hospital privileges.
So hospitals are private, only 10 percent of the doctors work for the government, to me that's not the description of socialized medicine: the
government running, the government providing the health care.
But, for example, England's National Health Service, they have tried to privatize their hospitals by creating foundation trusts. I think that is a
general direction in that it's just a tradition of the government being both the financing part and the providing part. They have been trying to
split that so that there should be more market efficiency. It's the same internal market argument.
market efficiencies work in medicine?
To a certain extent. For example, the lowering of drug prices and for devices, that is an area where there are tangible aspects of it so that you can
compare apples to apples. But if you are talking about comparing health insurance grants and trying to make them compete, they will compete on
By picking healthy patients?
These health care plans covering basic health care for a worker and his family, do they make a profit?
No, because they are not allowed to make a profit. And anything left over is carried over to the next year, and if there's a lot carried over, then
the premium rate would go down.
Pascal Couchepin whole interview
President of Switzerland
Switzerland has a health care system that covers everybody; the quality is good; the costs are lower than in America, per capita. Is it socialized
What do you mean by socialized medicine?
Run by the government?
No, it is not considered as socialized medicine. ... The doctors are paid by the mandatory health insurance system, so it is not quite a free market.
On the other side, there is a kind of competition between the health insurance companies, between the hospitals. So it is probably not a socialized
system, but it is a step further into the direction than the American system. ... I don't think it is a free-market system 100 percent -- by at
least, let us say, 70 percent.
Could a 100 percent free-market system work in health care?
No, I don't think so. If you do that, you will lose solidarity and equal access for everybody. ... We think that is a basic value of living in our
Prof. Uwe Reinhardt and Tsung-mei Cheng
Princeton University whole interview(s)
May, can I ask you, in most countries, do they take it as a given that everyone should have a right to some basic level of health care?
Cheng: Yes, I would say so. America is the only country, ... among the developed countries, that does not have universal national health insurance.
But if you ask Americans, "Does everybody have a right to basic health care?," what do they say?
Cheng: They say yes, everybody should have health care, on the one hand. But on the other hand, if you ask them, "Are you willing to pay for it?,"
they say no. So I've never been able to understand this contradiction.
And that gets to your point that a country's health care system reflects its basic social values.
Reinhardt: Yes, and one must respect differences there. There are libertarian values which say private property is the overarching value, the sanctity
thereof, and there are egalitarians who say health care should be shared and so on. That's fair enough. What troubles me about the American people is
they talk out of two sides of their mouths.
Prof. William Hsiao
Harvard School of Public Health
Would you say that Taiwan has socialized medicine?
No, sir. Taiwan does not have socialized medicine in any sense of the word. First of all, the doctors are private practices. Most of hospitals are
privately owned. They compete with each other. People have a choice of their doctors, hospitals. They have more choice than Americans. In no sense is
it a socialized system.
So when Americans say, we can't adopt those foreign systems because of socialized medicine, [that's] wrong?
It's absolutely wrong for American people to think that when you have universal social insurance then you're going to have socialized medicine.
Nigel Hawkes whole interview
Health editor, The Times of London
[Can you talk about the attempts to introduce internal competition into NHS?]
Originally -- and this is still true in Scotland -- you have a pot of money which is distributed by local NHS managers to hospitals, GPs or whatever.
But in England, under Mrs. [Margaret] Thatcher and subsequently under Labor, it was decided that you could get a more efficient system if you divided
those who provide the services from those who pay for them. So in other words, the hospitals are providers; the primary care trusts ... are the
payers. The hospitals can compete among themselves for the available money. The idea was to create a sort of pseudo-market which would increase
They compete by saying, "I'll deliver a baby for less money than the guy down the road"?
They're not allowed to do it for less money,
... Who's doing well at it?
I think the Japanese do quite well. They have a very strange system by our standards, very strange indeed, but you get care very quickly. You can go
wherever you like. There are not gatekeepers. You can get an MRI scan for $100 in two days; here, you might be waiting weeks for an MRI scan. ...
Costs are quite low; they're tightly controlled by the government. that's an interesting system.
The continental European systems like France and Germany, costs tend to be a little bit higher than the NHS -- Service, I think, is prompter and in
some respects better. So it isn't a market; it can't be a market. You have to make some attempt to deliver health care equitably, and a market
isn't equitable. ... ... Somehow you've got to get the benefits of a market without the cruelties, and that is a difficult balance.