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A scientific redating of the eastward migration of the Thule -- ancestors of modern-day Inuit -- has pegged their push across Canada's polar frontier to no earlier than AD 1200. That's at least 150 years after Norse voyagers from Greenland are believed to have abandoned their short-lived, 11th-century settlement at the northern tip of Newfoundland following hostile encounters there, and in Labrador, with native inhabitants they called Skraelings.
Despite the apparent success of the Southern branch people (of the martime archaic) in Labrador, and the apparently well adjusted nature of their culture in Newfoundland, the residents of the Island of Newfoundland disappear from the archaeological record about 3,000 years ago. Archaeologists can cite no convincing influx of a new population at this time, as was the case with the Palaeo-Eskimos in northern Labrador. For the present the disappearance of the maritime Archaic people, and what seems to be a complete absence of Indian people from Newfoundland between 3,000 and 2,000 years ago remains one of the most puzzling mysteries in the Native history of the province.
The word skræling is the only word surviving into modern times from the Old Norse dialect spoken by the medieval Norse Greenlanders. In modern Icelandic, skrælingi means a barbarian. The origin of the word is not certain but it is probably based on the Old Norse word "skrá" which meant "skin" and also (as a verb) "to put in writing" (which was done on dried skin in Iceland for example in the case of the Icelandic Sagas). This would refer to the fact that the Inuit (both Dorset and Thule) as well as the other indigenous people the Norse Greenlanders met wore clothes made of animal skins, in contrast to the woven wool clothes worn by the Norse.
The Dorset culture preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America. Inuit legends mention the Tuniit (singular Tuniq) or Sivullirmiut ("First Inhabitants"), who were driven away by the Inuit. According to legend, they were "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit, but who were easily scared off and retreated from the advancing Inuit. It is thought that the Dorset, and maybe the later Thule people, were called Skræling by the Norse who visited the area.
Yes, the norse failed miserabley as settlers.
When they settled greenland, Iceland and newfoundland, they were never anything more than outposts. In my opinion these settlements would have never made it, even in the absence of human resitance.
For many years it was easy to get to the new world from scandanavia, you put at one time of the year and you go to newfoundland, put in sveral months later you go back to scandanavia.
Becase of this ease of travel the norse never made the settlements in the new world wholy self sustainable, they relied on a steady flow of goods from the homelands to sustain the colonies.
The norse also considered the native americans to be less than human savages, and would not adopt their ways in order to survive.