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NuSTAR Finds Cosmic Clumpy Doughnut Around Black Hole

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posted on Dec, 17 2015 @ 05:15 PM
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Scientists have theorized since the 80s that super massive Black Holes were encircled by Doughnut shaped rings of dust and gas , now using the NuSTAR space-based X-ray telescope scientists have peered into the spiral galaxy NGC 1068 which is believed to have one of the densest of these doughnuts.

In the past decade, astronomers have been finding hints that these doughnuts aren't as smoothly shaped as once thought. They are more like defective, lumpy doughnuts that a doughnut shop might throw away.

The new discovery is the first time this clumpiness has been observed in an ultra-thick doughnut, and supports the idea that this phenomenon may be common. The research is important for understanding the growth and evolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies.

"We don't fully understand why some supermassive black holes are so heavily obscured, or why the surrounding material is clumpy," said co-author Poshak Gandhi of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. "This is a subject of hot research."

Both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observed the supermassive black hole in NGC 1068 simultaneously on two occasions between 2014 to 2015. On one of those occasions, in August 2014, NuSTAR observed a spike in brightness. NuSTAR observes X-rays in a higher-energy range than XMM-Newton, and those high-energy X-rays can uniquely pierce thick clouds around the black hole. The scientists say the spike in high-energy X-rays was due to a clearing in the thickness of the material entombing the supermassive black hole.
www.nustar.caltech.edu...

The inset of the Cosmic Doughnut is an artists impression but beautiful nonetheless , the Galaxy is a composite of visible light and X-ray observations

Full sized picture




posted on Dec, 17 2015 @ 05:25 PM
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a reply to: gortex

What I cannot understand, is why it is that scientists might assume that the doughnut would be perfectly round. A black hole at the centre of a galaxy is going to be what gym rats might call "like, a total beast dude!". These huge centres of gravity yank in everything that strays too near to them, from the most insignificant speck of matter, to the largest planets and stars, entire solar systems, even other, smaller black holes. Heck, in the event of two galaxies colliding, the centres merge to create an even bigger monster, as is expected to happen when our own galaxy collides with its nearest neighbour in billions of years time.

It stands to reason, that because the material being dragged ever closer to the black hole is not of uniform density, the ring of material running around outside the black hole will not be of uniform shape.



posted on Dec, 17 2015 @ 05:27 PM
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A torus around a black hole makes sense. Seems to confirm the black hole has another end to it, as in wormhole. Even the science/math makes sense.



posted on Dec, 17 2015 @ 08:37 PM
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a reply to: TrueBrit

True Brit,

As i can understand your reasoning for a lake of uniformity...does it not stand to reason to why the solar system flows in a circular path? Like a paddle pushing thru water, it leaves behind a swirling feature regardless if a twig or leaf is in its current, so the center star (however it was left or begun spinning is already in swirling motion to its rapid demise(the collapse) much like when a figure skater "tightens" their postures, they rotate quicker, then collapse and the remains rotation is what we witness of a black hole, then in which this case the black hole swirling in rapid motion will spin out the remind objects, much like a ball tethered to a pole, the objects aline themselves accordingly the closer that get to the center. I hope i made a clear opinion to this theory of uniformity (or w.e. it may be called-im not a genius)

Side note: Great to See you Posting Sir! Always a please to read what your golden fingers type. I only hope i could provide a decent debate.

I would also like to point out the black holes release energy out its opposites poles...now that is beyond me to decide what its North or South is...

Regards,

SK


edit on th42Thu, 17 Dec 2015 20:42:20 -0600K2015122031pm12 by SirKonstantin because: (no reason given)



posted on Dec, 18 2015 @ 01:37 AM
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a reply to: SirKonstantin

Ok, try this analogy out for size:

The water in your bath is space-time. Lets say that you get out of the bath while there are still some bubbles left, just a couple of handfuls, and let's call those bubbles planets or dust or the dead hearts of stars. When the plug gets pulled (representing the black hole) that stuff gets whipped into a vortex, but it does not immediately go down the hole. Instead, it rotates around it for a time, and it does not form an evenly distributed disc, but different sized bubbles occupy different quadrants of that rotation, according to when they arrived in the circle mosh going on around the vortex.

You see where I am going with this?



posted on Dec, 19 2015 @ 04:24 PM
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a reply to: TrueBrit

I do, yet the toilet drain does not discharge energy on polar ends, i see that force of energy purposely causing a uniformity of such. I think at a point in time of the space,object, etc...Yes, you are right that it's a mess all around the black hole.

But that isn't what is shown in the photo, it seems (to me) shown in a point in time of uniformity. Or it does not show, or choose to show, the surrounding objects that would make your opinion cast iron. ( I strongly respect your knowledge and insight of this subject knowing that I could most assuredly be wrong. :inky: ) But this is a fun debate!

Regards,

SK



posted on Dec, 19 2015 @ 06:45 PM
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a reply to: SirKonstantin

You would not see the individual planets, dead or dying stars, or any of that stuff, because the sheer weight of the debris in that ring would be too vast. I would assume that all the most dense material would be consumed first in any case, since, having more mass, it would be acted upon more strongly than objects and material of lesser mass.

Also, think about scale here for a moment. That black hole is probably several million suns worth, if not larger, of matter and energy sucking chaos. The ring around it must be HUGE! Resolving a planet or dead star in amongst that mess would be nigh on impossible, from an imaging perspective.



posted on Dec, 20 2015 @ 08:59 AM
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a reply to: TrueBrit

And once again my mind has exploded...

So if it is not uniformly circular (hula-hoop-ish) what spherical like shape would it create?



posted on Dec, 20 2015 @ 02:11 PM
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a reply to: SirKonstantin

Well, an irregular toroid would make most sense. Obviously the spin created by the black hole, and the fact that the black holes poles are active, would prevent any spherical figure from being described by the debris circling there, the activity at the poles would push the debris out again if that were to happen.

Think about a black hole with NOTHING around it. No matter, no dark ring around it, a black hole nomad if you will encountering only the occasional body of mass, clump of matter, glob of energy every so often.

Let us say it approaches a galaxy, an outer arm for example. When approaches a solar system, it destabilises pre existing orbits, and bodies in that region begin to fall in toward it. Some of them may approach at an angle which sees them flung off into realms unknown, some will be put into a highly eccentric, long orbit around the object, and others will be forced directly into its maw. When an object strays to close, it looses any atmosphere it might contain, then it begins to truly break apart. The black hole, it begins to feed, the material it consumes being swept into a tight, circular smear around its girth, before being consumed. But things like stars are not consumed in one stream of matter, sucked away in a uniform fashion.

Yes, a star might loose its upper layers in a steady-ish stream, but its heart will not spool out to the same degree. It is a thicker and more troublesome prospect than the photosphere would be, not strung out to the same degree at all. If that smear, that ring around a black hole during a light snack was to reflect this, it would feature all the matter of all the planets and the photosphere of the star, but there would be a lumpen part of that ring, an irregularity where that density of matter that was the heart of a star, could be tracked to its final destruction and consumption.

The difference here is, that in the OP image and the example it reflects, the black hole in question is consuming many, MANY times that amount of stuff, and so the shape of the ring around the thing becomes a source of confusion. It seems to me however, that the only difference, is one of scale.




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