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Chemical analysis was recently conducted also on a group of large limestone basins from Gobekli Tepe. Six barrel- and trough-like vessels have been found in PPNB contexts. Due to their size and capacities of up to 160 litres they are static, integral parts of particular rooms , but fragments of such vessels appear in all strata. Some of them show grayish-black residues adhering to the lower parts of vessels.
First results show probable evidence of oxalate for some samples,but the applied Feigl ltest was not sensitive enough to give reproducible results.
Oxalate develops during and can indicate the production of malt and beer. A complete scapula of an onager was found at the bottom of one . A very similar ﬁnd is known from Tell ‘Abr in Syria, where ﬁve large limestone vessels stood on the ﬂoor of a structure described as a “communal building”, and a large bone lay withinone of the vessel. These bones could well have been used to stir up the contents of the vessels or to skim parts of it.
This and the presence of a hearth encouraged the excavators to interpret the room as a kitchen area.Since the simplest brewing process would need, in addition to cereal processing equipment,only large containers for malting and mashing, this ‘kitchen’ could have produced beer as well. In Gobekli Tepe, the occurrence of beer making is not yet certain, but as signs of habitation are also absent, it is a possibility that not every step of production was carried out there.
The grain may have been malted at nearby settlements and been brought there only on special occasions. Genetic analyses have shown that the domestication of single-grained einkorn and emmer wheat took place around the Karacada in close vicinity to Gobekli Tepe. It is an intriguing thought that brewing and the domestication of wheat might be interrelated
it seems obvious that repetitive feasts of the amplitude implied at Gobekli Tepe must have placed stress on the economic production of hunter-gatherer groups. Maybe in response to the demand, new food sources and processing techniques were explored. In this scenario, religious beliefs and practices may have been a key factor in the adoption of intensive cultivation and the transition to agriculture. Archaeological and chemical evidence further suggests that this innovation may have been fuelled by alcoholic beverages
Beer goddess Nin-kasi was a venerable and long-lasting deity, for she appears in god lists and other texts from the Early Dynastic period (2900-2350 B.C.E.). She was "the personification of beer and presided over its manufacture" . Her name possibly means "Lady Who Fills the Mouth (with Beer)."
Lately the ancient beer goddess has been experiencing a resurgence of worshipful, if commercial, interest. The first "Hymn to Ninkasi" outlines in some detail how the ancient Mesopotamians made their beer. Eventually someone had to try to make it. In 1989, the Anchor Brewing Company in California did just that and produced a limited edition of the beer from a recipe decoded from the Hymn. The brewers called it "Ninkasi Beer"