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For example, in 2003, Iran elected not to become a member of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) since the convention contradicted the Islamic Sharia law in Clause A of its single article.
This creates numerous problems in issues regarding rape, where the female is at fault by default. In such cases, the act of sexual penetration must be attested by at least four male Muslim witnesses of good character. The ultimate punishments are reserved to the legal authorities however the law states that false accusations are to be punished severely. According to these views, the principles are so rigorous in their search for evidence, that they create the near impossibility of being able to reach a verdict that goes against the suspect in any manner. Legal imbalances such as this can be seen in the case of individuals such as Atefah Sahaaleh who was executed by the state for 'inappropriate sexual relations', however was most probably a rape victim.