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Algal blooms, often caused by the addition of nutrients to a water body, are made up of cyanobacteria, commonly called blue-green algae. Some cyanobacteria can produce toxins, called cyanotoxins. Although many blooms contain non-toxic species of cyanobacteria, lab tests are needed to determine whether a bloom is toxic or nontoxic. Some cyanotoxins can be toxic for humans, animals and plants. The health effects include nausea, vomiting, fever, rashes, and eye and ear irritation
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RIVERBANK, SLOW SAND AND BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION
Riverbank filtration is a simple and effective treatment process which is widely used in some parts of the world. Water is abstracted from rivers by using bores (wells) close by, effectively filtering the raw water through the riverbank, usually consisting of sand, gravel or stones. Particulates including algae and cyanobacteria are removed by this filtration process. Many soluble contaminants are also removed by adsorption or by biological processes taking place in the biofilm on the sand/gravel grain surfaces, mainly in the first few centimetres of infiltration. In this process dissolved toxins can also be removed []. Bank filtration covers a wide range of conditions, with travel times between the river and the well of a few hours to several months. In case of short travel times the processes involved are comparable to those occurring in slow sand filters.