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The Islamic Golden Age is a historical period lasting from c. 750 CE to c. 1257 CE, during which philosophers, scientists and engineers of the Islamic world are credited with a period of contribution to scientific knowledge, cultural arts, civilisation and architecture
There is little agreement on the precise causes of the decline, but in addition to invasion by the Mongols and crusaders and the destruction of libraries and madrasahs, it has also been suggested that political mismanagement and the stifling of independent reasoning in the 12th century in favor of institutionalised thinking played a part.
In 1744 Mohammed Ibn Saud, a local tribal leader from the central desert area of Najd of Arabia made a pact with a religious reformer Mohammed Ibn Abdel Wahab. Together they started to dominate and unite the warring tribes of Arabia, just as Mohammed had done more than a thousand years before. Mohammed Ibn Saud started the Al Saud dynasty which is being rocked to its foundation today. Wahabism is what is now known as Islamic Fundamentalism. From the very start there was tension between the political leadership of the Al Saudis and the religious Wahabism. They did found the first complete Islamic state in what is now Saudi Arabia. Wahabism did spread to other countries but only for brief periods. It was not until the discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia in the 1930s that Islam made a deal with Mammon (god of money). The USA paid for the exploration of oil in Saudi and a close relationship has been in place ever since. The US dollar has paid for most of the oil in Saudi Arabia. But the capitalists in the USA have created their own monster, yet again. That is a lot of US dollars over many decades and it has helped to create Islamic Fundamentalism.