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Rights are variously construed as legal, social, or moral freedoms to act or refrain from acting, or entitlements to be acted upon or not acted upon. While the concept is fundamental to civilized societies, there is considerable disagreement about what is meant precisely by the term rights. It has been used by different groups and thinkers for different purposes, with different and sometimes opposing definitions, and the precise definition of the concept, beyond having something to do with normative rules of some sort or another, is controversial. Nevertheless, the concept of rights is of vital importance in such disciplines as law and ethics especially theories of justice and deontology.
1 a : government by the people; especially : rule of the majority
The doctrine of human rights aims to identify the necessary positive and negative prerequisites for a "universal" minimal standard of justice, tolerance and human dignity that can be considered the public moral norms owed by and to individuals by the mere virtue of their humanity.
An argumentum ad populum (Latin: "appeal to the people"), in logic is a fallacious argument that concludes a proposition to be true because many or all people believe it; it alleges, "If many believe so, it is so." This type of argument is known by several names, including appeal to the masses, appeal to belief, appeal to the majority, appeal to the people, argument by consensus, authority of the many, and bandwagon fallacy, and in Latin by the names argumentum ad populum ("appeal to the people"), argumentum ad numerum ("appeal to the number"), and consensus gentium ("agreement of the clans").
Examples of Appeal to Popularity
1. "My fellow Americans...there has been some talk that the government is overstepping its bounds by allowing police to enter peoples' homes without the warrants traditionally required by the Constitution. However, these are dangerous times and dangerous times require appropriate actions. I have in my office thousands of letters from people who let me know, in no uncertain terms, that they heartily endorse the war against crime in these United States. Because of this overwhelming approval, it is evident that the police are doing the right thing."
2. "I read the other day that most people really like the new gun control laws. I was sort of suspicious of them, but I guess if most people like them, then they must be okay."
The phrase tyranny of the majority, used in discussing systems of democracy and majority rule, is a criticism of the scenario in which decisions made by a majority under that system would place that majority's interests so far above a dissenting individual's interest that the individual would be actively oppressed.
An argumentum ad populum (Latin: "appeal to the people"), in logic is a fallacious argument that concludes a proposition to be true because many or all people believe it; it alleges, "If many believe so, it is so." This type of argument is known by several names.
the phenomenon of a popular trend attracting even greater popularity; "in periods of high merger activity there is a bandwagon effect with more and more firms seeking to engage in takeover activity"; "polls are accused of creating a bandwagon effect to benefit their candidate"
It is indeed my position that rights are a timeless set of liberties based on universal virtues and not subject to alteration or convenient approximation. They are in fact the foundations upon which societies are built on and are not to be selectively interpreted and/or suspended to satisfy an either perceived or real threat.
A group of animals fleeing a predator shows the nature of herd behavior. In 1971, in the oft cited article "Geometry For The Selfish Herd," evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton asserted that each individual group member reduces the danger to itself by moving as close as possible to the center of the fleeing group. Thus the herd appears to act as a unit in moving together, but its function emerges from the uncoordinated behavior of self-serving individuals
I beg to differ on the above points that my opponent makes. To assume that rights are based on "a timelss set of liberties" is ludicrous. Have blacks always had the same rights as white? Have women always been allowed to vote? Have gays and lesbians always been accepted readily into society? The answer is obviously no.
My point is that universal liberties change, as society evolves.
Societies are built on evolution, not a concrete structure that has allows for a strict and linear growth. If we had no evolutionary development, then we would still be back in the stone age killing those of different colour (simply for not being white etc) and assuming that women were of lower intelligence and were of a lower class then men.
The framers of the Constitution were aware that changes would be necessary if the Constitution was to endure as the nation grew. However, they were also conscious that such change should not be easy, lest it permit ill-conceived and hastily passed amendments. On the other hand, they also wanted to ensure that a rigid requirement of unanimity would not block action desired by the vast majority of the population.
it must also be ratified by three-fourths of states. en.wikipedia.org...
A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds majority. en.wikipedia.org...
The measure added a new provision, Section 7.5 of Article I, to the California Constitution. The new section reads:
"Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California." en.wikipedia.org...(2008)