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Earlier this week, the vast international team associated with three gravitational-wave projects unveiled the results from their latest observing run. The collaboration had already published two key detections from that run, the first-ever smashups of black holes with neutron stars. But this long-awaited third catalog adds significantly to researchers’ full tally, raising the total number of gravitational-wave events to 90.
The catalog includes compact objects caught colliding during the second half of the collaboration’s third observing run (called O3b), which ran from November 2019 until March 2020. This run included both Europe’s Virgo and the U.S.-based LIGO detectors; the Japanese KAGRA project joined the fun for the campaign’s last two weeks.
All four detectors use lasers bounced off mirrors to measure infinitesimal changes in distance as spacetime scrunches and stretches when a gravitational ripple passes through. The observatories turn up thousands of potential events, which scientists weed through with complex computer algorithms.
Scientists have now detected 90 gravitational-wave events, created by the merger of either black holes, neutron stars, or both. The dots indicate the masses of the objects that merged and of the object they created. Pink and yellow dots are detections from electromagnetic observations.
originally posted by: gortex
a reply to: ColoradoTemplar
Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime , like ripples on a lake don't affect the shoreline Gravitational waves don't affect us ... although as we're a part of Spacetime how would we really know , perhaps they do in some small way.
What causes gravitational waves?
originally posted by: ColoradoTemplar
Just the other night I was laying in bed thinking about gravitational waves and what would happen if one hit the Earth? Would it affect time briefly on the planet? Would I feel anything physically or mentally? Would it feel like you were being stretched like when going through a black hole for a moment?
When two supermassive black holes finally merge, their million-year-long orbital dance culminates with an incredible burst of gravitational waves. If this takes place in the core of a galaxy, it can have dramatic effects on the environment. The gravitational radiation can deposit energy into the surrounding gas, heating it up and making it glow in infrared light for tens of thousands of years. Furthermore, the new supermassive black hole born from the merger will generally recoil from the crash, perturbing the orbits of nearby gas and stars. For a sufficiently strong recoil, the new black hole may even be ejected from the galactic core altogether, further affecting future dynamics within the galaxy. Although several of these processes can lead to X-rays and other high-energy electromagnetic emission, they would likely not destroy the galaxy.
A gamma-ray burst will emit the same amount of energy as a supernova, caused when a star collapses and explodes, but in seconds or minutes rather than weeks. Their peak luminosities can be 100 billion billion times that of our sun, and a billion times more than even the brightest supernovas.
It turned out to be fortunate that they were so far away. “If there was a gamma-ray burst in our galaxy with a jet pointed at us, the best thing you could hope for is a quick extinction,” said Zhu. “You would hope that the radiation smashes through the ozone and immediately fries everything to death. Because the worst scenario is if it’s farther away, it could cause some of the nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere to turn into nitrous dioxide. The atmosphere would turn brown. It would be a slow death.”
Gamma-ray bursts come in two flavors, long and short. The former, which can last up to several minutes or so, are thought to result from stars more than 20 times the mass of our sun collapsing into black holes and exploding as supernovas. The latter, which last only up to about a second, are caused by two merging neutron stars (or perhaps a neutron star merging with a black hole), which was confirmed in 2017 when gravitational-wave observatories detected a neutron star merger and NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope caught the associated gamma-ray burst.
Haha, that's funny! But understandable, I don't think that author is the only one confused by gravity waves versus gravitational waves, apparently you and many other people are too.
originally posted by: purplemer
a reply to: Arbitrageur
What about these..
MIXSatellites capture strange images of unique gravitational waves above La Palma volcano
If they had just stuck with the name used by the scientific source they cited, they would have been golden. Why did they have to change the name incorrectly from gravity waves to gravitational waves?
The gravity waves in the clouds over the the Cumbre Vieja volcano captured on Ocober 4 by the MODIS instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite
originally posted by: LSU2018
Did you see the view from Camera #2? (snip)
The shock of the volcanic eruption generated mesospheric gravity waves (or “mesospheric airglow waves”) that were evident in the Day/Night Band, shown in the toggle below between the 11.45 µm and the night-time visible imagery.