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Frederik Willem de Klerk[a] OMG DMS (18 March 1936 – 11 November 2021) was a South African politician and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who served as state president from 1989 to 1994 and as deputy president from 1994 to 1996. As South Africa's last head of state from the era of white-minority rule, he and his government dismantled the apartheid system and introduced universal suffrage. Ideologically a conservative and an economic liberal, he led the National Party (NP) from 1989 to 1997.