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Developmental Effects of Estrogenic Agents on Mice, Fish, and Frogs
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that exposure of rodents to sex hormones during prenatal or early postnatal life can cause permanent and irreversible alterations of the endocrine and reproductive organs, such as ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary gland in females; and testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle in males; as well as non reproductive organs including bones and muscle and immune and nervous systems in both sexes. Early development of Xenopus laevis into the tadpole and Fundulus heteroclitus goes through a rapid cell division, gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis within 1 week after fertilization. The developing embryo is very fragile and sensitive to estrogenic agents. Thus, these animals can be used as a suitable model for examining the effect of endocrine disruptors (hormonally active agents) on the development of aquatic living beings, which are most likely to be exposed to the compounds.
Bisphenol A in the Aquatic Environment and Its Endocrine-Disruptive Effects on Aquatic Organisms
Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane], which is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, is a known endocrine disruptor and is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Due to intensified usage of these products, exposure of organisms to BPA via several routes, such as the environment and food, has increased. The aquatic environment is an important area for the study of BPA. This report reviews the literature concerning contamination routes and degradation of BPA in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms.
Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.
Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment
Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.
Arcelus et al have recently conducted a systematic review of research in this area that makes use of 12 studies providing prevalence data (or supplying information enabling it to be calculated)…. Arcelus et al reported prevalence figures of 4.6 transgender people in every 100,000 individuals (1 in every 21739 people), with 6.8 transgender women in every 100,000 birth-assigned males (1 in every 14706), and 2.6 transgender men in every 1000,000 birth-assigned females (1 in every 38461). womanmeanssomething.com...
Of the 135,367 likely transgender people who changed their names with the Social Security Administration, 65 percent were transgender men and 35 percent were transgender women. www.nytimes.com...
Estimate of U.S. Transgender Population Doubles to 1.4 Million Adults
About 1.4 million adults in the United States identify as transgender, double a widely used previous estimate, according to an analysis based on new federal and state data.
originally posted by: SocratesJohnson
this is what i want to follow
so transgender frogs are because of a polluted environment
so trangednerism is an effect of pollution. so that means if you fix the pollution problem, you effect trnagender. is that genocide?
It's true that the majority of canned soda pop contains BPA, but beer poses even more of a risk, due to the high solubility of BPA in alcohol. Wine isn't a completely safe choice, either: BPA is also found in the epoxy linings of some wine vats used during fermentation