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1992-1999: The CIA's Afghanistan aftermath.
After investing $3 billion in Afghanistan's destruction, Washington just walked away in 1992, leaving behind a thoroughly ravaged country with over one million dead, five million refugees, 10-20 million landmines still in place, an infrastructure in ruins, an economy in tatters, and well-armed tribal warlords prepared to fight among themselves for control of the capital. Even when Washington finally cut its covert CIA funding at the end of 1991, however, Pakistan's ISI continued to back favored local warlords in pursuit of its long-term goal of installing a Pashtun client regime in Kabul. Throughout the 1990s, ruthless local warlords mixed guns and opium in a lethal brew as part of a brutal struggle for power. It was almost as if the soil had been sown with those dragons' teeth of ancient myth that can suddenly sprout into an army of full-grown warriors, who leap from the earth with swords drawn for war.When northern resistance forces finally captured Kabul from the communist regime, which had outlasted the Soviet withdrawal by three years, Pakistan still backed its client Hekmatyar. He, in turn, unleashed his artillery on the besieged capital. The result: the deaths of an estimated 50,000 more Afghans. Even a slaughter of such monumental proportions, however, could not win power for this unpopular fundamentalist. So the ISI armed a new force, the Taliban and in September 1996, it succeeded in capturing Kabul, only to fight the Northern Alliance for the next five years in the valleys to the north of the capital. During this seemingly unending civil war, rival factions leaned heavily on opium to finance the fighting, more than doubling the harvest to 4,600 tons by 1999. Throughout these two decades of warfare and a twenty-fold jump in drug production, Afghanistan itself was slowly transformed from a diverse agricultural ecosystem -- with herding, orchards, and over 60 food crops -- into the world's first economy dependent on the production of a single illicit drug. In the process, a fragile human ecology was brought to ruin in an unprecedented way. During these two decades of war, however, modern firepower devastated the herds, damaged snowmelt irrigation systems, and destroyed many of the orchards. While the Soviets simply blasted the landscape with firepower, the Taliban, with an unerring instinct for their society's economic jugular, violated the unwritten rules of traditional Afghan warfare by cutting down the orchards on the vast Shamali plain north of Kabul. All these strands of destruction knit themselves into a veritable Gordian knot of human suffering to which opium became the sole solution. Like Alexander's legendary sword, it offered a straightforward way to cut through a complex conundrum. Without any aid to restock their herds, reseed their fields, or replant their orchards, Afghan farmers -- including some 3 million returning refugees -- found sustenance in opium, which had historically been but a small part of their agriculture.
Not to mention we effectively created Al Qaeda and the Taliban,
originally posted by: neo96
Not to mention we effectively created Al Qaeda and the Taliban,
No we didn't.
What effectively created AQ was the Soviet invasion and the Peshwar Seven.
What effectively created the Taliban was the same.
Special note that both AQ and the Taliban come from the Sunni branch of Islam where Wahabbism comes from.
And It's birth place is the House of Saud, and consequently created a new group which as everyone knows as ISIS.
What to do about Afghanistan ?
The road to self recovery is telling people the WHOLE story.
The Khyber Pass has long been one of the most important trade routes and strategic military locations in the world. Nestled in the mountains that divide present day Pakistan and Afghanistan, it forms the bridge between Central and South Asia.Feb 17, 2011
The CIA did have a major role in organising arming and training the Mujahadeen though.
In 1977 Afghanistan was transforming itself into an enlightened, modern and democratic society. Eyewitness accounts from the 1960s and 1970s document the rapid changes embraced by Afghan men and women across a broad spectrum of society. Despite its poverty, Afghanistan had been independent in its foreign policy and self-sufficient in many areas, including food production; a vivid illustration of what life was like when Afghans were in control of their own state. It was also the year that Zbigniew Brzezinski stepped into the role as National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter. Brzezinski was about to turn back the clock for the Afghan people by inaugurating a plan to lure the Soviet Union into an invasion of Afghanistan that was fulfilled on December 27th 1979. Now the blowback from Brzezinski’s scheme has delivered another dagger into the heart of America’s soul and the people of Orlando, Florida.
This is how Zbigniew Brzezinski did it.
Upon entering the White House in 1977 Brzezinski formed the Nationalities Working Group (NWG) dedicated to weakening the Soviet Union by inflaming ethnic tensions, especially among the Islamic populations of the region. While Brzezinski was activating his scheme, former CIA operative Graham Fuller was station chief (1975-1978) in Kabul, Afghanistan. Conveniently for Brzezinski, Fuller’s focus was on how to politicize the Islamic world on behalf of American interests. In Fuller’s own words, he explains his thesis:
“In the West the words Islamic fundamentalism conjure up images of bearded men with turbans and women covered in black shrouds. And some Islamist movements do indeed contain reactionary and violent elements. But we should not let stereotypes blind us to the fact that there are also powerful modernising forces at work within these movements. Political Islam is about change. In this sense, modern Islamist movements may be the main vehicle for bringing about change in the Muslim world and the break-up of the old “dinosaur” regimes.”
In 1977 Fuller was in a position to activate Brzezinski’s scheme. As CIA station chief in Kabul he was also perfectly positioned to provide Brzezinski with the intelligence needed to build his case for President Carter to sign the directive allowing him to lure the Soviets into invading Afghanistan. www.huffingtonpost.com...
Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) greatly supported and funded the Taliban during 1994, some sources even say ISI "created" the Taliban.The I.S.I. used the Taliban to establish a regime in Afghanistan which would be favorable to Pakistan, as they were trying to gain strategic depth. Since the creation of the Taliban, the ISI and the Pakistani military have given financial, logistical and military support.