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originally posted by: peter vlar
Our first successfully domesticated animal and current holder of the title of "Mans Beat Friend", canines. The evolution of dogs through selective breeding and convergent evolution is included in the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and studied from a paleontological aspect as well as through the lense of Anthropology.
originally posted by: peter vlar
Going all the way back to wild Aurochs and looking into aspects of convergent evolution between dairy cattle and humans and exploring the relationship between this domestication and its subsequent convergence of evolutionary traits surrounding the gene for lactose persistence in European HSS as we try to learn more about this beneficial mutation and how our domesticated cattle managed to evolve alongside us to produce milk more easily digestible while we Simultaneously evolved the gene that allows us to digest lactose beyond toddlerhood.
originally posted by: peter vlar
In short, it isn't so much that domestication and selective breeding aren't considered a part of MES. It's more that the focus of MES is on natural biological evolution and not on selective breeding guided by human hands.
originally posted by: peter vlar
To be clear and succinct though, selective breeding is considered a mechanism of evolution. Darwin actually discussed it and used the example of pigeons who were subject to breeding practices to enhance certain characteristics.
originally posted by: PhotonEffect
a reply to: AlienView
Not sure where you beliefs in life lie, but just a friendly word of advice - If you're going to try and put up an argument of any kind against evolution that you want people to take seriously, you can't cite creationist sites as a source. Just can't. It's an immediate kiss of death, and for good reasons. The least of which are propagandist driven agendas and not good science.
“You are what you think.
All that you are arises from your thoughts.
With your thoughts you make your world.”
"Science is the belief in the ignorance of the experts"
– Richard Feynman
originally posted by: whereislogic
originally posted by: TerryDon79
a reply to: neoholographic
Computer code is used BY US to understand and explain things.
This is an example of what I meant in my previous comment. Conveniently ignoring that ALL WORDS are used by us to help understand and explain things (including realities/facts) to make his point without actually spelling out his point (but people are thinking it after reading his comment, like a trigger to their figurative database of arguments they've heard regarding this subject and how to deny realities/facts by capitalizing on the ambiguity of language, a conditioned, trained behaviour). It doesn't negate the appropiateness of certain words when applied to realities/facts/certainties/truths.
Notice how I used the word "figurative" in the sentence above before "database"? That's how you use words to make it clear when you're using an analogy or metaphor. Likewise you can use words like "like" or "similar to" if you suspect that it might not be clear that you're using an analogy or metaphor. The so-called peer reviewed articles in reputable magazines that use the word "code" (or "programming", "programmed") in relation to DNA that I've seen are clearly not using a metaphor or an analogy. They do it because they know it's the appropiate word to describe, help understand and explain a reality/fact.
Fact: DNA as it is found in the genomes of living organisms IS a code.
A person who is willing to hear out and learn from those teaching science/knowledge about DNA would do well to not only pick up what they're saying about the subject of evolution but also hear out the rest and practice their ability to tell fact from fiction and when those who possess a lot of knowledge regarding these subjects move from discussing facts into discussing fiction (which also happens in published articles).
The video below describes the facts with words, as is the purpose of language and communication when you're trying to explain facts/realities to help people understand them and when you're not trying to warp people's understanding of language and encourage them to deny facts to sell mythology as science and science as mythology. Notice the usage of the words "information, encoded, code, operation, instructions, machine", just to name a few words with further logical implications for a person willing to accept and deal with reality:
And the same words used by the Japanese (after translation into english, also notice "programmed"):
If it's programmed, then the process of programming was involved, which initially requires a programmer or programmers with the required amount and type of intelligence for whatever has been programmed; there's a relation between this that can give you further clues as to the level of technological advancement and know-how of the programmer or programmers, and the word "initially" relates to this level of technological advancement as well when we're talking about self-executing (in conjunction with the right biomolecular machinery to get that function out of the code/blueprint) and replicating codes. The abilities regarding self-execution and replication, which are still interdependent with the machinery for execution of the code, do not negate or lower the initial requirement for a programmer(s), it increases the level of technological advancement and know-how or intelligence required, and makes the evidence more convincing, especially if you also consider the interdependency of everything involved in a viable living reproducing organism.
a : a person who prepares and tests programs for devices (as computers)
b : one that programs a mechanism
c : one that prepares an instructional program
d : a person who plans or prepares entertainment programs
Do you see any mention of Mother Nature, nature, the laws of nature, natural, or evolution in there? Which ones do you think apply when I used the word programmer? Is it OK when multiple descriptions of the meaning of that word apply? Might there be some aspect of a programmer that they decided not to emphasize to keep the dictionary from having to be stored in DNA format to keep it from getting too big (thinking about one of the latest science threads about using DNA to store computer data)? Something they might assume everyone already knows is required for the process of pogramming or preparing a mechanism or instructional program?
originally posted by: whereislogic
Also note the post with all the googled links from Krazysh0t, I had a look at the first one and was slapped in my face with mythology right away, there are clear words in that article that admit that (a biased person probably won't notice, but the word "theories" there early on is more appropiately referred to as unverified philosophies/ideas, myths/false stories. Of course the publishers of that article are hoping that some readers who read "theories" there actually think of so-called "scientific theories". Another keyword: "may". That's all they've got, 'nature did it' ('it evolved'), supported by fanciful maybe-so stories to make that claim sound as plausible as they can to the biased hearer or reader. Note that neoholographic's original question said: "How did....?" not "How might...."? Big difference that certain people no doubt want to downplay. Truths/certainties vs fiction/maybe-so stories/might be-so stories, as if what "might be" even matters (using your fantasy and walking around in La La Land) when talking about science (from the Latin "scientia" meaning knowledge: a familiarity with facts/certainties/truths/realities acquired by personal experience, observation, or study.) Where I'm using a / I'm using synonyms.
Until the late 19th or early 20th century, scientists were called "natural philosophers" or "men of science".
English philosopher and historian of science William Whewell coined the term scientist in 1833,...
Whewell wrote of "an increasing proclivity of separation and dismemberment" in the sciences; while highly specific terms proliferated—chemist, mathematician, naturalist—the broad term "philosopher" was no longer satisfactory to group together those who pursued science, without the caveats of "natural" or "experimental" philosopher.
“As in Mathematicks, so in Natural Philosophy, the Investigation of difficult Things by the Method of Analysis, ought ever to precede the Method of Composition. This Analysis consists in making Experiments and Observations, and in drawing general Conclusions from them by Induction, and admitting of no Objections against the Conclusions, but such as are taken from Experiments, or other certain Truths. For Hypotheses are not to be regarded in experimental Philosophy.”
- Isaac Newton (from Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica)
The Encyclopaedia Britannica on inductive reasoning:
When a person uses a number of established facts to draw a general conclusion, he uses inductive reasoning. THIS IS THE KIND OF LOGIC NORMALLY USED IN THE SCIENCES. ...
I've read more of the "answer" now that Krazysh0t provided and have only one thing left to say:
neurotic speculation of the obsessive compulsive kind
And a video with more details about how inductive reasoning works (also regarding the subject of the Lac operon remember that the "functional arrangement" in the DNA sequence that is called the Lac operon is a "part" of the entire DNA genome as well as a larger system of information processing, many things that count for machines also count for codes/blueprints/recipes when they are interdependent and co-functional with those machines in a larger system of machinery; see the video for those quotations), from 35:30 - 39:30:
Dobzhansky, a Russian who migrated to the United States in the mid-twentieth century to work as a population geneticist, championed the view that microevolutionary processes alone are suﬃcient to explain all of evolution. Dobzhansky, one of the co-authors of the Modern or neo-Darwinian Synthesis, had been mentored by Filipchencko. Although Dobzhansky is often credited with introducing the term macroevolution to English-speaking evolutionary biologists, it was primarily to argue against any discontinuity between microevolution and macroevolution. His inﬂuential 1937 text
Genetics and the Origin of Species stated:
There is no way toward an understanding of the mechanisms of macroevolution, which require time on a geological scale,other than through a full comprehension of microevolutionary processes. For this reason, we are compelled at the present level of knowledge reluctantly to put a sign of equality between the mechanisms of macro-and micro-evolution.
"contrary to classical evolution theory, the processes that drive the small changes observed as species diverge cannot be taken as models for the evolution of the body plans of animals. These are apples and oranges so to speak."
A distinguishing feature of dGRNs is their deep hierarchy, which essentially stems from the long sequence of successive spatial regulatory states required to be installed in building first the axial embryonic/larval body plan, and then constructing individual body parts (Peter and Davidson, 2011; Davidson, 2010).....
Implicit in the hierarchical structure of GRNs is the mechanism of evolutionary canalization, as indicated in Table 1 at Principle 4. The subcircuits at each level provide feeds to the next level in the same or, via signaling, in other specified spatial domains. But each subcircuit produces a finite set of inputs for the next level, and only recipient nodes that contain target site combinations can respond to those particular inputs. Thus the universe of possible responses is vastly constrained by dGRN hierarchy at each level transition, inevitably resulting in what was classically termed “canalization” of the developmental process (Waddington, 1957; Gibson and Wagner, 2000).
On purely internal considerations, some aspects of dGRN structure appear much more impervious to change than others. For example, a frequently encountered type of subcircuit in upstream regions of dGRNs consists of two or three genes locked together by feedback inputs (Davidson, 2010). These feedback structures act to stabilize regulatory states, and there is a high penalty to change, in that interference with the dynamic expression of any one of the genes causes the collapse of expression of all, and the total loss from the system of their contributions to the regulatory state. On the other hand, peripheral far downstream subcircuits such as differentiation gene batteries can change freely without affecting major patterning functions or causing network collapse (Davidson and Erwin, 2006; Erwin and Davidson, 2009]).
Whatever continuous variation occurs at individual cis-regulatory sequences, the dGRN circuit output preserves its Boolean morphogenetic character.
Therefore the action of selection differs across dGRN structure. Selection does not operate to produce continuous adaptive change except at the dGRN periphery. The lack of continuous variation in morphogenetic traits defining Class and Phylum level clades is obvious in the striking evolutionary stasis revealed by the fossil record (Davidson and Erwin, 2006; 2009; Erwin, 2011). In other words, while cis-regulatory sequence variation may have continuing adaptive significance at the dGRN periphery, at upper levels of the dGRN hierarchy it does not have the same significance because the system level output is very impervious to change, except for catastrophic loss of the body part or loss of viability altogether. As long realized and much discussed in a non-mechanistic way in advance of actual knowledge of dGRN structure and function (for review see Gibson and Wagner, 2000), this imperviousness has something to do with whatever processes generate canalization and/or “buffering” of the genetic control system. We can now begin to understand canalization mechanistically in terms of dGRN hierarchy and subcircuit structure, as above, butin so far as “buffering” is taken to mean protection against “environmental fluctuations” as in many evolutionary mathematical models, it is irrelevant to animal embryonic processes, since in the main these depend not at all upon environmental inputs.