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Glass found at Glozel was dated spectrographically in the 1920s, and again in the 1990s at the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto by neutron activation analysis. Both analyses place the glass fragments in the medieval period. Alice and Sam Gerard together with Robert Liris in 1995 managed to have two bone tubes found in Tomb II C-14 dated at the AMS C-14 laboratory at the University of Arizona, finding a 13th-century date.
Thermoluminescence dating of Glozel pottery in 1974 confirmed that the pottery was not produced recently. By 1979, 39 TL dates on 27 artifacts separated the artifacts into three groups: the first between 300 BC and 300 AD (Celtic and Roman Gaul), the second medieval, centered on the 13th century, and the third recent. TL datings of 1983 performed in Oxford range from the 4th century to the medieval period.
Carbon-14 datings of bone fragments range from the 13th to the 20th century. Three C-14 analyses performed in Oxford in 1984 dated a piece of charcoal to the 11th to 13th century, and a fragment of an ivory ring to the 15th century. A human femur was dated to the 5th century. Some archaeologists dated the rune stones on a fantastic age (about 8000 BC). This was displayed by experts such as Dr. Lois Capitan as clumsy forgery. The reason is that ca. 8000 BC no meaningful civilization could have existed.
Some 100 ceramic tablets bearing inscriptions are among the artefacts found at Glozel. The inscriptions are, on average, on six or seven lines, mostly on a single side, although some specimens are inscribed on both faces.
The symbols on the tablets are reminiscent of the Phoenician alphabet, but they have not been conclusively deciphered. There were numerous claims of decipherment, including identification of the language of the inscriptions as Basque, Chaldean, Eteocretan, Hebrew, Iberian, Latin, Berber, Ligurian, Phoenician and Turkic.
In 1982, Hans-Rudolf Hitz suggested a Celtic origin for the inscriptions, and dated them to between the 3rd century BC and the 1st century AD, suggesting a Gaulish dialect. He counts 25 signs, augmented by some 60 variations and ligatures. Hitz hypothesizes that the alphabet was influenced by the Lepontic alphabet of Lugano, itself descended from the Etruscan alphabet, reading some Lepontic proper names like Setu (Lepontic Setu-pokios), Attec (Lepontic Ati, Atecua), Uenit (Lepontic Uenia), Tepu (Lepontic Atepu). Hitz even claims discovery of the toponym Glozel itself, as nemu chlausei "in the sacred place of Glozel" (comparing nemu to Gaulish nemeton).
An examination of the Glozel inscriptions on stone, bone, and ceramic reveals a certain variability between the texts. The possibility that different writers came over an extended period of time to the "sacred site of Glozel" might explain this fact. Pilgrims came to Glozel in order to inscribe dedications and make offerings as a form of religious observance, and also in order to immortalize deceased people or noble families.
An important purpose of the visit was to acquaint oneself with the writing and to learn how to reproduce it. Glozel seems to have been a kind of writing school. This presumes contacts between different peoples, but all of them must have spoken a Celtic language in order to understand each other.
Relationship of the Inscriptions of Glozel to Other Iron Age Inscriptions
According to measurements made by thermoluminescence (McKerrell, 1999), about two-thirds of the tested ceramic objects from Glozel date to between 300 BC and 100 AD. I have reached the conclusion that a great number of the Glozel signs represent letters which are similar to letters in related alphabets in use from the Iron Age to the Gallo-Roman period.
In comparing the Glozel inscriptions with these written languages, one finds close relationships with the Celtic texts from Transalpine Gaul (Gallo-Greek and Gallo-Latin), with the Celtic inscriptions (Lepontic and Cisalpine Gaulish) in use in Cisalpine Gaul (the north of Italy and southern Switzerland), as well as with the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.
The Glozel Tablet thus appears to produce data consistent with prior studies of proto-cuneiform, and Irish Ogham. The same writing style is also found on much older archaic writing styles, such as the Paleolithic-era engraved stones uncovered in Shuidongguo in China, Blombos Cave in South Africa, and the circa 300,000 to 400,000 year old engraved bone of Bilzingsleben.
In the middle of the 1980ies there were found 9 carved Stone-Tablets with highly interesting inscripts on it. It was in the south of Germany, in the small City of "Weißenhorn".
Now it happened that we could locate the owner, who supplied us with Photos. (digital ones not yet in my possession). Seems to be a mixture between Tifinagh and Proto-Greek.
One bone fragment, an elephant tibia, has two groups of 7 and 14 incised parallel lines and might represent an early example of art. The regular spacing of the incisions, their subequal lengths and V-like cross-sections suggest they were created at the same time, with a single stone tool. The tibia dates to between 350,000 and 400,000 years ago. The interpretation as an early calendar is a possibility.
Dating cogged stones has been relatively difficult as most have been found in heavily plowed fields. Only a few of those found in situ are datable. Known dates and estimates place their appearance during the Early Milling Stone Horizon, some 7,500 years ago. Some 2,500 years later they disappear abruptly (Eberhart 1961 and Koerper 2006). Their range is centered along the Santa Ana River drainage in southern California's Orange and Riverside Counties. This extremely small geographic area contributes to their peculiarity. Though limited in range, some sites, like Bolsa Chica in Orange County, have revealed over 1,000 cogged stones in a few acres. On occasion, they have been found some distance from the Santa Ana River, known from isolated examples in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, and as far east as Chandler, in south central Arizona.
Cogged stones were made from a range of materials including red ochre, steatite, tonolite, rhyolite, diorite, talc schist, calcium carbonate concretions, sandstone, siltstone, limestone, andesite, dactite, dolerite, pumice, basalt, and granite (Eberhart 1961, Underbrink 2006). Recent studies seem to indicate that the choice of stone was significant. It has been noted recently by Jeffrey S. Couch, Joanne S. Couch, and Nancy Anastasia Wiley, that cogged stones coming from the Cogged Stone Site (ORA-83) are made of different materials than its sister site, the Irvine Site (ORA64), even though both localities had ample access to the same materials. It appears that they chose to have distinct materials with which to fashion the artifacts that were to become the hallmarks of their sites during the same time period. It is therefore interpreted that specific stone types had tribal/clan affiliation (Couch, Couch, and Wiley 2009).
Chilean cogstones have the same range in size but are more varied in form; in addition to grooved or toothed disks, there are triangles quadrangles, and polygons with 24 or more facets. The material is always granite. Distribution in Chile is restricted to the province of Coquimbo and to sites earlier than 1500 B.C.
As a whole, cogged stones show no utilitarian wear, and many are made out of lithic materials not valued for their durability. Interestingly, when Cogged Stones broke in antiquity—either in late manufacture or through use—they were carefully repaired with asphaltum. Pleistocene discoidals, an object found regularly with cogged stones and considered to be the cogged stone's closest cousin, show no such signs of care. Often, a discoidal's breaks are polished down leaving the stone asymmetrical. Asymmetry is not a common feature in cogged stones.
Carved stone balls from Scotland are an enigmatic class of objects. They date to the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age, between 3200 and 1500 BC, and are made of various stones ranging from sandstone to granite. They are all of a relative similar size and are decorated with carved evenly-spaced patterns of circular bosses or knobs around the surface of the sphere. The designs vary with the majority being based around a series of six bosses, but the number of bosses varies from 3-160. Some carved balls are more skilfully manufactured than others, and a rare few have additional decoration. All show an appreciation for symmetry in the design.
Over 425 carved stone balls are now known, mainly from Scotland although a few have been found in northern England and Ireland. Most are isolated finds although a few have archaeological contexts, most notably the three found during excavations at the later Neolithic site at Skara Brae, Orkney, which are assumed to have had a ritual significance.
Despite their numbers, very little is known about carved stone balls and their purpose is still unknown. Very few of the balls are damaged or show any signs of use and they have not been found in contexts that would suggest a specific function. They are presumed to have been non-utilitarian objects with a symbolic or social significance to late Neolithic and early Bronze Age communities, and are most frequently interpreted as being indicators of power or prestige.
originally posted by: Shiloh7
a reply to: theantediluvian
I am purely looking and thinking so don't shoot me off my perch, its too esrly in the day and I am still very stiff in m y joints.
Could these balls be sling shot for hunting and even for local warfare? Just a thought. The cogged wheels are amazing and take me back to my theory that we might have our stone age the wrong way round.
Its simply that the stone-age people were so sophisticated and brilliant in their building, that I wonder if they are the last remnants of a pre-civilisation that existed prior to Sumer and whose majority died off during one of our many catastrophes - I just think when looking around my town that only the stone buildings would last a tsunami or similar destructive weathered force, the rest would be lost as debris which coulod be so displaced no one looking later would know where it came from originally.
originally posted by: zardust
a reply to: theantediluvian
Really enjoyed the thread
The writing on the tablets looks like an early Hebrew/Caananite language.
The typology offered here is supported by the grouping pattern found within the Keystone Cache and four other
caches from the site. There is a distinct spatial separation between Rectangular cogged stones and the others.
Rectangular group members are located in the center of the caches, surrounded by members of the other types. There is always a trapezoidal and/or Jell-O mold atop all the other cogged stones in the features. Approximately 50 percent or more of all Jell-O molds have white pigment residue on their larger faces. This is the only consistent painting/paint residue pattern among the cogged stones. One Jell-O mold is always upside down in each cache. None of the three or
more caches contain any odd-shaped cogged stones (such as those that are star-shaped). While the significance and meaning of these caching characteristics can be debated, what is evident is the consistency of the patterns observed. At a minimum, these patterns can help us properly associate and type these objects with greater fidelity than ever before.