(Dr. Hagins) holds a doctorate (C.C.D.) in counseling and a Ph.D. with an emphasis in Cognitive Psychology
ANCIENT EPITOME OF CANON VI.
The Bishop of Alexandria shall have jurisdiction over Egypt, Libya,
and Pentapolis. As also the Roman bishop over those subject to Rome.
So, too, the Bishop of Antioch and the rest over those who are under
them. If any be a bishop contrary to the judgment of the Metropolitan,
let him be no bishop. Provided it be in accordance with the canons by
the suffrage of the majority, if three object, their objection shall be of
Many, probably most, commentators have considered this the most
important and most interesting of all the Nicene canons, and a whole
library of works has been written upon it, some of the works asserting
and some denying what are commonly called the Papal claims. If any
one wishes to see a list of the most famous of these works he will find
it in Phillips's Kirchenrecht (Bd. ii. S. 35). I shall reserve what I have
to say upon this subject to the notes on a canon which seems really to
deal with it, confining myself here to an elucidation of the words found
in the canon before us.
HAMMOND, W. A.
The object and intention of this canon seems clearly to have been, not
to introduce any new powers or regulations into the Church, but to
confirm and establish ancient customs already existing. This, indeed,
is evident from the very first words of it: "Let the ancient customs be
maintained." It appears to have been made with particular reference to
the case of the Church of Alexandria, which had been troubled by the
irregular proceedings of Miletius, and to confirm the ancient privileges
of that see which he had invaded. The latter part of it, however, applies
to all Metropolitans, and confirms all their ancient privileges.
(Dict. Christ. Antiq. voce Council of Nicaea).
The first half of the canon enacts merely that what had long been
customary with respect to such persons in every province should
become law, beginning with the province where this principle had
been infringed; while the second half declares what was in future to be
received as law on two points which custom had not as yet expressly
ruled. ... Nobody disputes the meaning of this last half; nor, in fact,
would the meaning of the first half have been questioned, had it not
included Rome. ... Nobody can maintain that the bishops of Antioch
and Alexandria were called patriarchs then, or that the jurisdiction
they had then was co-extensive with what they had afterward, when
they were so called. ... It is on this clause ["since the like is customary
for the Bishops of Rome also"] standing parenthetically between what
is decreed for the particular cases of Egypt and Antioch, and in
consequence of the interpretation given to it by Rufinus, more
particularly, that so much strife has been raised. Rufinus may rank low
as a translator, yet, being a native of Aquileia, he cannot have been
ignorant of Roman ways, nor, on the other hand, had he greatly
misrepresented them, would his version have waited till the
seventeenth century to be impeached.
The sense of the first words of the canon is as follows: "This ancient
right is assigned to the Bishop of Alexandria which places under his
jurisdiction the whole diocese of Egypt." It is without any reason, then,
that the French Protestant Salmasius (Saumaise), the Anglican
Beveridge, and the Gallican Launoy, try to show that the Council of
Nice granted to the Bishop of Alexandria only the rights of ordinary
I do confess there was something peculiar in the case of the Bishop of
Alexandria, for all the provinces of Egypt were under his immediate
care, which was Patriarchal as to extent, but Metropolical in the
This authority (exousia) is that of a Metropolitan
which the Nicene Fathers decreed to be his due over the three
provinces named in this canon, Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis, which
made up the whole diocese of Egypt, as well in matters civil as
On this important question Hefele refers to the dissertation of Dupin,
in his work De Antiqua Ecclesoe Disciplina. Hefele says: "It seems to
me beyond a doubt that in this canon there is a question about that
which was afterward calm the patriarchate of the Bishop of
Alexandria; that is to say that he had a certain recognized
ecclesiastical authority, not only over several civil provinces, but also
over several ecclesiastical provinces (which had their own
metropolitans);" and further on (p. 392) he adds: "It is incontestable
that the civil provinces of Egypt, Libya, Pentapolis and Thebais, which
were all in subjection to the Bishop of Alexandria, were also
ecclesiastical provinces with their own metropolitans; and
consequently it is not the ordinary fights of metropolitans that the
Sixth Canon of Nice confers on the Bishop of Alexandria, but the
rights of a superior Metropolitan, that is, of a Patriarch."
There only remains to see what were the bounds of the jurisdiction of
the Bishop of Antioch. The civil diocese of Oriens is shown by the
Second Canon of Constantinople to be conterminous with what was
afterward called the Patriarchate of Antioch. The see of Antioch had,
as we know, several metropolitans subject to it, among them Caesarea,
under whose jurisdiction was Palestine. Justellus, however, is of
opinion that Pope Innocent I. was in error when he asserted that all the
Metropolitans of Oriens were to be ordained by him by any peculiar
authority, and goes so far as to stigmatize his words as "contrary to the
mind of the Nicene Synod."(1)
You should perhaps read some of these academic translations of the First Council of Nicea
Whats the only full anagram for JESUS CHRIST?
Here is how I described the text I just posted:
You should perhaps read some of these academic translations of the First Council of Nicea
For texts in the Ante-Nicene, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers series, see below
NOTE: The texts at this site here are public domain English translations from the Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers series for the first Seven ecumenical councils and from H.J. Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils, (St. Louis: B. Herder, 1937) [US Copyright expired - confirmed by TAN books, current owner of B. Herder's list]. These are not necessarily the best available sources for the various council texts, although they are quite serviceable, and the notes in the NPNF series are very useful. More recent editions and translations should be consulted for serious academic publication purposes. I have prepared a Guide to Documentary Sources for Catholic Teaching which lists, in some detail, what I take to be the current standard editions.
See also Ecumenical Councils - a useful, if denominationally partisan, article from the Catholic Encyclopedia.
First Ecumenical: Nicea I. 325. Canons and commentary on the First Council of Nicea from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Homoousion
Second Ecumenical: Constantinople I, 381. Canons and commentary on the First Council of Constantinople from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: First Council of Constantinople
Third Ecumenical: Ephesus, 431. Canons and commentary on the Council of Ephesus from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Council of Ephesus
NOTE: Only the first three councils would be accepted as ecumenical by the so-called "monophysite" churches, e.g. the Coptic and Armenian Orthodox Churches.
Fourth Ecumenical: Chalcedon, 451. Canons and commentary on the Council of Chalcedon from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers.
Council of Orange 529, or Version [At EWTN]
Fifth Ecumenical: Constantinople II, 553. canons and commentary on the Second Council of Constantinople from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers or text of canons alone. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Second Council of Constantinople
Sixth Ecumenical: Constantinople III, 680-681. Canons and commentary on the Second Council of Constantinople from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Third Council of Constantinople
The Quinisext Council: or Council in Trullo, 692. Canons and commentary on the Council in Trullo from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Council in Trullo
Seventh Ecumenical: Nicea II, 787. Canons and commentary on the Second Council of Nicea from Volume XIV of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Nicaea, Second Council of
NOTE: The following councils, although some of them had the support and participation of Orthodox bishops at the time [e.g. Constantinople IV, Lyons II, Florence] are generally not regarded as "ecumenical" by Eastern Orthodox or Anglican churches.
Eighth Ecumenical: Constantinople IV, 869-870. Canons from Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Fourth Council of Constantinople
Ninth Ecumenical: Council: Lateran I, 1123. Canons from Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Lateran Council, First
Tenth Ecumenical: Council: Lateran II, 1139. Canons from Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Lateran Council, Second
Catholic Encyclopedia: Lateran Council, Third
Twelfth Ecumenical: Lateran IV, 1215. Canons from Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Lateran Council, Fourth
Council of Trent, 1545-63. [at Hanover College - public domain]
There are also online etexts of council decrees from Norman Tanner, ed., Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, (London: Sheed and Ward; Washington. D.C: Georgetown University Press. 1990).
I have made these off-site links (at www.ewtn.com...) available, but note that there is no indication that copy permission has been obtained. EWTN is a very conservative Catholic web site, but it does have a lot of files [over 9000].
Council of Nicaea I : 325 A.D., with Catholic Encyclopedia article
Council of Constantinople I : 381 A.D.
Council of Ephesus : 431 A.D.
Council of Chalcedon : 451 A.D.
Council of Constantinople II : 553 AD
Council of Constantinople III : 680-681 A.D.
Council of Nicaea II : 787 A.D. , - with Catholic Encylopedia article
Cf. Nicea II 753 (Iconcolast Synod)
Council of Constantinople IV : 869-870 A.D.
Lateran Council I : 1123 A.D.
Lateran Council II : 1139 A.D.
Lateran Council III : 1179 A.D.
Lateran Council IV : 1215 A.D.
Council of Lyons 1 : 1245 A.D.
Council of Lyons 2 : 1274 A.D.
Council of Vienne : 1311-12 A.D.
Council of Constance 1414-18 A.D.
Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence : 1431-1435 A.D. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Council of Basel
Lateran Council V : 1512-17 A.D. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Fifth Lateran Council
Council of Trent : 1545-63 A.D. [at Hanover College - this is public domain]. Also a Zipped version [At EWTN]
Vatican Council I : 1869 AD
Vatican Council 2: Index [Text version - at RCNET]
Vatican Council 2: Index [HTML versions - at EWTN]
Your link to some carefully worded catholic website is most likely fiction.
jesus christ is spelt in english letters