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"The majority of these documents date to the 27th year of Khufu's reign and describe how the central administration sent food and supplies to Egyptian travelers. One document is of special interest: the diary of Merrer, an official involved in the building of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Using the diary, researchers were able to reconstruct three months of his life, providing new insight everyday lives of people of the Fourth Dynasty.The papyri are the oldest ever found in Egypt" (Wikipedia article on Wadi al-Jarf, accessed 04-25-2013)
reply to post by buster2010
It wasn't "trash", but the organic material comprising the gypsum mortar, used throughout the pyramid. The process of selecting the samples is described in the PDF. They took hundreds of samples from a wide area of the pyramid.
The stone of the pyramid itself cannot be tested. But the mortar can. In one of the links I posted earlier was another reference Lehner made, of the pottery shards also found, broken and ground up and mixed in with all the detritus packed into the gaps of the core stones. Those pottery shards also date to the 4th Dynasty, stylistically and with C14 testing.
Couple that with the Khufu cartouche buried with in the relieving chamber at the heart of the pyramid, it forms the basis for dating it with a high degree of certainty.
Carbon dating is not the only means of establishing a date for the GP. Other disciplines that connect the GP to the 4th dynasty include:
- stratigraphy: the study of archaeological layers
- archaeobotany: seeds/plant remains amongst the ruins
- osteoarchaeology: human remains found among the worker villages/cemetaries
- zooarchaeology: animal remains found among the worker villages/cemetaries
- ceramics: pottery shards found within the pyramid itself, including those found deep within the interstitial spaces of the core packing stones
- epigraphy: inscriptions, such as Khufu's cartouche
- lithics (intentionally chipped stone, stone tools)
These were the disciplines cited by Lehner in the AERA study linked to above. So it isn't some arbitrary random conclusion they are making when they say the GP is from the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
The point of all this radiocarbon drama is that the OP demanded to see a study of carbon dating of the Great Pyramid. It seemed clear from his tone that he did not believe such a study existed.edit on 21-2-2014 by Blackmarketeer because: (no reason given)edit on 22-2-2014 by Blackmarketeer because: (no reason given)
What part of the word repaired do you not understand? Everything that you say could have just as easily happened during the repair. It's hard to believe that all of this trash was left behind after the pyramid was first built but during a rebuild material is always left behind. Not to mention the materials they tested is used to make bricks not the limestone that was used in the building of the pyramid.
reply to post by buster2010
We can find the evidence of occupied human settlements dating back hundreds of thousands of years, based on the tiniest scraps of fire pits or bone piles. Yet in Egypt...?
You have tens of thousands of workers occupying a site for many years, you WILL LEAVE EVIDENCE BEHIND.
Everything found inside and outside the Great Pyramid comes from the Old Kingdom.
Carbon dating the GP has proven it is a 2nd millennium construct. You can't keep rejecting test results, simply because they don't fit into a pre-conceived fantasy.edit on 22-2-2014 by Blackmarketeer because: (no reason given)
reply to post by Blackmarketeer
Those doors could only have been placed during the construction of said pyramid. How do you explain the fact that somehow these super advanced ancient people were able to smelt and cast copper , but yet somehow seemed not to use metal for everyday purposes and used chipped stone tools for thousand of years after.
And graduate students make their mark by changing the status quo. Ask any scientist.
Scientists can't stand it when you question the status quo. Ask any graduate student.
reply to post by Spruce
I am not the enemy. All I'm saying is that Egyptian culture is notoriously corrupt. We cannot take their word for it regarding the age of the GP, or on many other things for that matter.Text
Honestly I think the evidence that showed the proof of who built what is long gone.
The original casing of the pyramid. That was taken centuries ago.
reply to post by Harte
My only issue with 'once and for all' on any subject, let alone this one, is that science doesn't stop and old theories are constantly being re-addressed.
BeaversThe only time 'once and for all' is brought up is when someone is more interested in being right, rather than being happy to find out if they are potentially wrong on the way to the truth.