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The Big Bang theory developed from observations of the structure of the universe and from theoretical considerations. In 1912 Vesto Slipher measured the first Doppler shift of a "spiral nebula" (spiral nebula is the obsolete term for spiral galaxies), and soon discovered that almost all such nebulae were receding from Earth. He did not grasp the cosmological implications of this fact, and indeed at the time it was highly controversial whether or not these nebulae were "island universes" outside our Milky Way. Ten years later, Alexander Friedmann, a Russian cosmologist and mathematician, derived the Friedmann equations from Albert Einstein's equations of general relativity, showing that the universe might be expanding in contrast to the static universe model advocated by Einstein at that time. In 1924 Edwin Hubble's measurement of the great distance to the nearest spiral nebulae showed that these systems were indeed other galaxies. Independently deriving Friedmann's equations in 1927, Georges Lemaître, a Belgian physicist and Roman Catholic priest, proposed that the inferred recession of the nebulae was due to the expansion of the universe.
In 1931 Lemaître went further and suggested that the evident expansion of the universe, if projected back in time, meant that the further in the past the smaller the universe was, until at some finite time in the past all the mass of the universe was concentrated into a single point, a "primeval atom" where and when the fabric of time and space came into existence.
Starting in 1924, Hubble painstakingly developed a series of distance indicators, the forerunner of the cosmic distance ladder, using the 100-inch (2,500 mm) Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory. This allowed him to estimate distances to galaxies whose redshifts had already been measured, mostly by Slipher. In 1929 Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and recession velocity—now known as Hubble's law. Lemaître had already shown that this was expected, given the Cosmological Principle.
In the 1920s and 1930s almost every major cosmologist preferred an eternal steady state universe, and several complained that the beginning of time implied by the Big Bang imported religious concepts into physics; this objection was later repeated by supporters of the steady state theory. This perception was enhanced by the fact that the originator of the Big Bang theory, Monsignor Georges Lemaître, was a Roman Catholic priest. Arthur Eddington agreed with Aristotle that the universe did not have a beginning in time, viz., that matter is eternal. A beginning in time was "repugnant" to him. Lemaître, however, thought that
In Lemaître's thinking, "God cannot be reduced to the role of a scientific hypothesis."27 Despite this, Lemaître goes on to say, "It does not mean that cosmology has no meaning for philosophy. Philosophy and theology, when kept in isolation from scientific thought, either change into an outdated self-enclosed system, or become a dangerous ideology."28
"In many ways I fought a battle against medieval approaches to cosmology influenced by otherwise good men that lacked the knowledge we have today, such as Archbishop Peter Lombard."
"The Biblical narration describes the world in such a manner as it appears to every man, and not in a manner which could be conceived by men only when their persevering research has led them from the actual wavering of science to an unquestionable synthetic knowledge of the world, and to a clear notion of relationships between its different elements."32
Perhaps the theologians themselves have a responsibility in the misunderstanding which places science against faith. An appearance of conflict originates between a traditional point of religious teaching and a new hypothesis which begins to establish itself on the basis of facts, they show a too easy tendency to wait till the last moment when the hypothesis would be definitely proved. They would have done much more useful work to have carefully investigated these points of the doctrine which seem to lead to conflicts . . . Anyway, their intelligent courtesy would be very appreciated in scientific circles, and it would constitute an apologetic of the best type.34
And when the pope spoke on Mass claiming that Lemaitre had confirmed genesis
.... All of them observed and documented with the thought process that we lived in a static universe that had always just been there.
Today we know that human consciousness can even change even the properties of matter. So, it cannot be true that only "measurable quantities - the objective ones -" have any value for science.
Instead, what you do not see is what is most important. Then this would be the reason Christ said to Thomas: and be not faithless, but believing, not only see with the eyes of the face, but also with your mind's eye, eyes of the soul!
.... it is considered today, the greatest of all the misfortunes that befell noble science, the fact that it stopped being written in ancient languages such as Greek or Latin.
These languages, their semantic richness, allow free thinking and to express forcefully the thoughts of men truly worthy of our admiration and praise. The science that was written in Latin created a different audience around the world and communicated freely among those who wrote and those who read, forming thus worldwide - mostly in the cultured, erudite and civilized European continent which even today is visible - the climate for the human genius to be expressed in all its splendor.
reply to post by frazzle
I read somewhere that the Vatican dealt solely in Latin, and so scientists used to communicate radical ideas and findings in English so they wouldn't learn of it.
very little light would be able to penetrate the haze to reach the oceans.
Nor does a direct modern translation from Hebrew.
New living translation. It's what my theology classes used primarily as it's translated from original Hebrew and Greek and is the 3rd most popular bible.
It uses the phrase "let them appear" which indicates that they were there but not visible for some reason.