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reply to post by muzzleflash
No offense, Muzzleflash, it's all just probably going right over my head...but your posts here for the most part make little sense to me.
"forbidden place; sacrosanct, sanctum"
reply to post by Stormdancer777
Very interesting. According the the article, the feminine deities started to lose power in the bronze age. What happened between the Neolithic and the bronze? Farming, civilzation, religions? Power struggles and the women lost because they were not warriors and physically equal, maybe? Wisdom was not the force needed at the time but maybe we have come to it now.
reply to post by muzzleflash
If you don't get it now, there is no help for you my friend.
Thanks for clearing that up.
Epicurus (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/; Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators.
For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are the measures of what is good and evil; death is the end of both body and soul and should therefore not be feared; the gods neither reward nor punish humans; the universe is infinite and eternal; and events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space.
Epicurus' school, which was based in the garden of his house and thus called "The Garden", had a small but devoted following in his lifetime. The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, Leontion, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism. His school was the first of the ancient Greek philosophical schools to admit women as a rule rather than an exception. An inscription on the gate to The Garden is recorded by Seneca in epistle XXI of Epistulae morales ad Lucilium:
Stranger, here you will do well to tarry; here our highest good is pleasure.
Epicurus emphasized friendship as an important ingredient of happiness, and the school resembled in many ways a community of friends living together. However, he also instituted a hierarchical system of levels among his followers, and had them swear an oath on his core tenets.
Epicurus is a key figure in the development of science and scientific methodology because of his insistence that nothing should be believed, except that which was tested through direct observation and logical deduction. He was a key figure in the Axial Age, the period from 800 BC to 200 BC, during which similar thinking appeared in China, India, Iran, the Near East, and Ancient Greece. His statement of the Ethic of Reciprocity as the foundation of ethics is the earliest in Ancient Greece, and he differs from the formulation of utilitarianism by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill by emphasizing the minimization of harm to oneself and others as the way to maximize happiness.
The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity is a maxim, ethical code or morality
This concept describes a "reciprocal", or "two-way", relationship between one's self and others that involves both sides equally, and in a mutual fashion.
Epicurus's teachings represented a departure from the other major Greek thinkers of his period, and before, but was nevertheless founded on many of the same principles as Democritus. Like Democritus, he was an atomist, believing that the fundamental constituents of the world were indivisible little bits of matter (atoms, Greek atomos, indivisible) flying through empty space (kenos). Everything that occurs is the result of the atoms colliding, rebounding, and becoming entangled with one another, with no purpose or plan behind their motions. (Compare this with the modern study of particle physics.) His theory differs from the earlier atomism of Democritus because he admits that atoms do not always follow straight lines but their direction of motion may occasionally exhibit a 'swerve' (clinamen). This allowed him to avoid the determinism implicit in the earlier atomism and to affirm free will. (Compare this with the modern theory of quantum physics, which postulates a non-deterministic random motion of fundamental particles, which do not swerve absent an external force; randomness originates in interaction of particles in incompatible eigenstates.)
He regularly admitted women and slaves into his school and was one of the first Greeks to break from the god-fearing and god-worshiping tradition common at the time, even while affirming that religious activities are useful as a way to contemplate the gods and to use them as an example of the pleasant life. Epicurus participated in the activities of traditional Greek religion, but taught that one should avoid holding false opinions about the gods. The gods are immortal and blessed and men who ascribe any additional qualities that are alien to immortality and blessedness are, according to Epicurus, impious. The gods do not punish the bad and reward the good as the common man believes. The opinion of the crowd is, Epicurus claims, that the gods "send great evils to the wicked and great blessings to the righteous who model themselves after the gods," whereas Epicurus believes the gods, in reality, do not concern themselves at all with human beings.
So I did a OK job at keeping it T+C friendly and still "Esoteric" you think ?
In 1944 intelligence experts at Wright Field had developed lists of advanced aviation equipment they wanted to examine. Watson and his crew, nicknamed "Watson's Whizzers," composed of pilots, engineers and maintenance men, used these "Black Lists" to collect aircraft. Watson organized his Whizzers into two sections. One collected jet aircraft and the other procured piston-engine aircraft and nonflyable jet and rocket equipment.
After the war, the Whizzers added Luftwaffe test pilots to their team. One was Hauptman Heinz Braur. On May 8, 1945, Braur flew 70 women, children and wounded troops to Munich-Riem airport. After he landed, Braur was approached by one of Watson's men who gave him the choice of either going to a prison camp or flying with the Whizzers. Braur thought flying preferable. Three Messerschmitt employees also joined the Whizzers
Operation "Wrath of God" (Hebrew: מבצע זעם האל Mivtza Za'am Ha'el), also known as Operation "Bayonet", was a covert operation directed by Israel and the Mossad to assassinate individuals suspected of being involved in the 1972 Munich massacre in which 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team were murdered.
Gideon or Gedeon (/ˈɡɪd.iː.ən/; Hebrew: גִּדְעוֹן, Modern Gid'on Tiberian Giḏʻôn), which means "Destroyer," "Mighty warrior," or "Feller (of trees)" was, according to the Tanakh, a judge of the Hebrews. His story is recorded in chapters 6 to 8 of the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible. Judges 6–8. He is also named in chapter 11 of the Epistle to the Hebrews as an example of a man of faith.
fluxus means "flow", and fluere is "to flow"
An in Sumerian mythology is a goddess, possibly a female principle of the creator god An. Early iconography suggests a celestial sky goddess in the form of a cow whose udders produce rain and who becomes Antu in the Akkadian pantheon.
Ahn, also romanized An, is a Korean family name. It literally means "tranquility."
The surname An (Chinese: 安; pinyin: Ān) literally means "peace" or "tranquility".
The an (案?) is a small table, desk or platform used during Shinto ceremonies to bear offerings.
from Latin rēte, meaning "net"
In a fragmentary passage from Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria ‘Anat appears as a fierce, wild and furious warrior in a battle, wading knee-deep in blood, striking off heads, cutting off hands, binding the heads to her torso and the hands in her sash, driving out the old men and townsfolk with her arrows, her heart filled with joy. "Her character in this passage anticipates her subsequent warlike role against the enemies of Baal".
"The wrath of God", an anthropomorphic expression for the attitude which some believe God has towards sin,
The Hellenistic period saw the reoccupation of the site of Beit She'an under the new name Scythopolis (Ancient Greek: Σκυθόπολις), possibly named after the Scythian mercenaries who settled there as veterans. Little is known about the Hellenistic city, but during the 3rd century BCE a large temple was constructed on the Tell. It is unknown which deity was worshipped there, but the temple continued to be used during Roman times. The local Greek mythology holds that the city was founded by Dionysus and that his nursemaid Nysa was buried there; thus it was sometimes known as Nysa-Scythopolis.
In Greek mythology, the mountainous district of Nysa (Greek: Νῦσα), variously associated with Ethiopia, Libya, Tribalia, India or Arabia by Greek mythographers, was the traditional place where the rain nymphs, the Hyades, raised the infant god Dionysus, the "Zeus of Nysa". Though the worship of Dionysus came into mainland Greece from Asia Minor (where the Hittites called themselves "Nesi" and their language "Nesili"), the locations of the mythical Nysa may simply be conventions to show that a magically distant chthonic land of myth was intended.
According to Sir William Jones, "Meros is said by the Greeks to have been a mountain in India, on which their Dionysos was born, and that Meru, though it generally means the north pole in Indian geography, is also a mountain near the city of Naishada or Nysa, called by the Greek geographers Dionysopolis, and universally celebrated in the Sanskrit poems".
In Greek mythology, the Hyades (/ˈhaɪ.ədiːz/; Ancient Greek: Ὑάδες, popularly "the rainy ones", but probably from Greek hys, i.e. "swine"), are a sisterhood of nymphs that bring rain.
The Hyades were daughters of Atlas (by either Pleione or Aethra, one of the Oceanides) and sisters of Hyas in most tellings, although one version gives their parents as Hyas and Boeotia. The Hyades are sisters to the Pleiades and the Hesperides.
Saint Ia of Cornwall (also known as Eia, Hia or Hya) was a Cornish evangelist and martyr of the 5th or 6th centuries. She is said to have been an Irish princess,
A hyaline substance is one with a glassy appearance. The word is derived from Greek: ὑάλινος transparent and Greek: ὕαλος crystal, glass.
Adonis (Greek: Ἄδωνις), in Greek mythology, is the god of beauty and desire, and is a central figure in various mystery religions.
His religion belonged to women: the dying of Adonis was fully developed in the circle of young girls around the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, about 600 BC, as revealed in a fragment of Sappho's surviving poetry.
The Greek Ἄδωνις (Greek pronunciation: [ˈadɔːnis]), Adōnis was a borrowing from the Semitic word adon, meaning "lord", which is related to Adonai, one of the names used to refer to the God (אֲדֹנָי) in the Hebrew Bible and still used in Judaism to the present day. Syrian Adonis is Gauas or Aos, akin to Egyptian Osiris, the Semitic Tammuz and Baal Hadad, the Etruscan Atunis and the Phrygian Attis, all of whom are deities of rebirth and vegetation.
Hyacinth /ˈhaɪəsɪnθ/ or Hyacinthus (in Greek, Ὑάκινθος, Hyakinthos) is a divine hero from Greek mythology.
In the literary myth, Hyacinth was a beautiful youth and lover of the god Apollo, though he was also admired by West Wind, Zephyr.
Hyacinth was the tutelary deity of one of the principal Spartan festivals, the Hyacinthia, held every summer.
The House of Hades, the fourth book in the Heroes of Olympus series, was released on October 8, 2013.
At the conclusion of the previous book in the series, The Mark of Athena, Annabeth Chase and Percy Jackson fall into a pit leading to Tartarus. The protagonists are on a quest to close the Doors of Death, rescue Annabeth and Percy from Tartarus, and stop the Roman demigods from Camp Jupiter from attacking Camp Half-Blood.
The narrators of this book are Percy Jackson, Annabeth Chase, Hazel Levesque, Leo Valdez, Frank Zhang, Jason Grace and Piper McLean; of the eight demigod protagonists, only Nico di Angelo does not act as a narrator.
In historical times it became renowned in Sicily and Italy for the cult of the goddess Demeter (the Roman Ceres), whose grove in the neighborhood was known as the umbilicus Siciliae ("The navel of Sicily"). Ceres' temple in Henna was a famed site of worship.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (/ɪˈrɪniˌiz/; Ἐρῑνύες [ῠ], pl. of Ἐρῑνύς [ῡ], Erinys; literally "the avengers" from Greek ἐρίνειν "pursue, persecute" [sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (Greek χθόνιαι θεαί)]) were female chthonic deities of vengeance. A formulaic oath in the Iliad invokes them as "those who beneath the earth punish whosoever has sworn a false oath". Burkert suggests they are "an embodiment of the act of self-cursing contained in the oath". They correspond to the Furies or Dirae in Roman mythology.
"the implacable or unceasing anger"
"the jealous one"
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of many Semitic abjads, including Arabic alphabet bāʾ ب, Aramaic, Hebrew ב, Phoenician and Syriac ܒ. Its value is .
This letter's name means "house" in various Semitic languages (Arabic bayt, Akkadian bītu, bētu, Hebrew: bayiṯ, Phoenician bt etc.; ultimately all from Proto-Semitic *bayt-),
In mathematics, the infinite cardinal numbers are represented by the Hebrew letter \aleph (aleph) indexed with a subscript that runs over the ordinal numbers (see aleph number). The second Hebrew letter \beth (beth) is used in a related way, but does not necessarily index all of the numbers indexed by \aleph .
Sa‘id (also spelled Saeed, Saeid, Said, or Sayid, Arabic: سعيد, Sa‘īd) is a male Arabic given name meaning "happy". For the female version, see Saida (name); for the Turkish variant, see Sait.
San Agustín is the Spanish-language name for St. Augustine.
Augustine of Hippo (/ɔːˈɡʌstɨn/ or /ˈɔːɡəstɪn/; Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine or Saint Austin, was an early Christian theologian whose writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was bishop of Hippo Regius (present-day Annaba, Algeria) located in the Roman province of Africa. Writing during the Patristic Era, he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers. Among his most important works are City of God and Confessions, which continue to be read widely today.
For Augustine, the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself, but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love, which is enjoyment on account of God, and lust, which is not on account of God. For Augustine, proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God. He wrote that the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome, were innocent because they did not intend to sin.
Augustine's view of sexual feelings as sinful affected his view of women. For example he considered a man’s erection to be sinful, though involuntary, because it did not take place under his conscious control. His solution was to place controls on women to limit their ability to influence men.
He believed that the serpent approached Eve because she was less rational and lacked self-control, while Adam's choice to eat was viewed as an act of kindness so that Eve would not be left alone. Augustine believed sin entered the world because man (the spirit) did not exercise control over woman (the flesh). Augustine's views on women were not all negative, however. In his Tractates on the Gospel of John, Augustine, commenting on the Samaritan woman from John 4:1–42, uses the woman as a figure of the church.
According to Raming, the authority of the Decretum Gratiani, a collection of Roman Catholic canon law which prohibits women from leading, teaching, or being a witness, rests largely on the views of the early church fathers—one of the most influential being St. Augustine, the Bishop of Hippo. The laws and traditions founded upon St. Augustine's views of sexuality and women continue to exercise considerable influence over church doctrinal positions regarding the role of women in the church.
The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum (in some manuscripts Concordantia discordantium canonum) is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian.
The English Patient (1992) is a non-linear North African/Italian Campaigns of World War II themed romantic drama novel by Sri Lankan-born-Canadian novelist Michael Ondaatje. The story deals with the gradually revealed histories of a critically burned English accented Hungarian man, his Canadian Army nurse, a Canadian-Italian thief turned British intelligence operative, and an Indian-born British Army sapper as they live out the end of the war in an Italian villa. The novel is distinguished by awards as a work of fiction: the Canadian Governor General's Award (1992) and the Booker Prize. The award-winning film of the same name (1996) is an adaption. The narrative examines with depth and detail the main characters.
The historical backdrop for this novel is the North African/Italian Campaigns of World War II. Hana, a troubled young Canadian Army nurse, lives in the bombed out and abandoned Villa San Girolamo, in an Italian Monastery, which is filled with many hidden, unexploded bombs. All she knows about her English patient is that he was terribly burned beyond recognition in a plane crash before being taken to the British hospital by Bedouin. He also claimed to be British, speaking English. His only possession is a well worn copy of Herodotus' histories that has survived the fire.
Hannah (from Hebrew חַנָּה, also occasionally transliterated as Channah or Ḥannah; pronounced in English as /ˈhænə/) is the wife of Elkanah mentioned in the Books of Samuel. According to the Hebrew Bible she was the mother of Samuel. The Hebrew word "Hannah" has many meanings and interpretations, with the most common being the ancient Hebrew meaning of "grace" or "favour/He (God) has favoured me".
In the biblical narrative, Hannah is one of two wives of Elkanah; the other, Peninnah, bore children to Elkanah, but Hannah remained childless. Nevertheless, Elkanah preferred Hannah. Every year Elkanah would offer a sacrifice at the Shiloh sanctuary, and give Penninah and her children a portion but he gave Hannah a double portion "because he loved her, and the LORD had closed her womb" (NIV). One day Hannah went up to the temple, and prayed with great weeping (I Samuel 1:10), while Eli the High Priest was sitting on a chair near the doorpost. In her prayer she asked God for a son and in return she vowed to give the son back to God for the service of the Shiloh priests. She promised he would remain a Nazarite all the days of his life.
Eli thought she was drunk and questioned her. When she explained herself, he sent her away and effectively said that her prayer would be heard and her desire granted. As promised, she conceived and bore a son. She called his name Samuel, "since she had asked the Lord for him" (1 Samuel 1:20 NAB). She raised him until he was weaned and brought him to the temple along with a sacrifice. The first 10 verses of 1 Samuel 2 record her song of praise to the Lord for answering her petition. Hannah is also considered to be a prophetess, because in this Biblical passage she foretells history in advance. Eli announced another blessing on Hannah, and she conceived 3 more sons and 2 daughters, making six in total.
Peninnah (occasionally transliterated as Penina) was one of Elkanah's two wives, briefly mentioned in the first Book of Samuel (1 Samuel 1:2). Her name means "pearl" or "coral".
Some commentators suggest that Peninnah's actions were in fact noble, and that Peninnah "mocked" the barren Hannah in order to further drive Hannah to pray even harder to God to give her children.
Hannah, also spelt Hanna, Hana, or Chana, is a given name. In the Hebrew language Ḥannah (חַנָּה) means "gracious" or "He (God) has favoured me/favours me [with a child]". This name is transliterated from Arabic as either Hannah or Hana. In the Japanese language, "Hana" means flower and is a popular girls name.
Anna (Hebrew: חַנָּה, Ancient Greek: Ἄννα) or Anna the Prophetess is a woman mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to that Gospel, she was an aged Jewish woman who prophesied about Jesus at the Temple of Jerusalem. She appears in Luke 2:36–38 during the presentation of Jesus at the Temple.
Saint Anne (also known as Ann or Anna, from Hebrew Hannah חַנָּה, meaning "favor" or "grace") of David's house and line, was the mother of the Virgin Mary and grandmother of Jesus Christ, according to Christian and Islamic tradition.
Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden also known as Irene, Anna and St. Anna (1001 – 10 February 1050), was a Swedish princess and a Grand Princess of Kiev. She was the daughter of Swedish King Olof Skötkonung and Estrid of the Obotrites and the consort of Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev.
Ingegerd or St. Anna is often confused with the mother of St. Vladimir “the Enlightener” of the Rus. This is mainly because Ingegerd and Yaroslav also had a son named Vladimir. However, St. Vladimir was actually the father of Ingegerd’s husband Yaroslav I “the Wise”, thus making her St. Vladimir’s daughter-in-law. St. Vladimir is actually the son of Sviatoslav and Malusha.
"Santa Ana", a tune recorded by British instrumental group The Shadows on their 1964 album The Sound of The Shadows
Santa Ana Drags was the first drag strip in the United States. The strip was founded by C.J. "Pappy" Hart,
Christy (released in 1967) is a historical fiction novel by Christian author Catherine Marshall set in the fictional Appalachian village of Cutter Gap, Tennessee, in 1912. The novel was inspired by the story of the journey made by her own mother, Leonora Whitaker, to teach the impoverished children in the Appalachian region as a young, single adult. The novel explores faith and mountain traditions such as moonshining, folk beliefs and folk medicine. Marshall also made notes for a sequel, never published, which were found by her family some 34 years later. Christianity Today ranked Christy as 27th on a list of the 50 books (post-World War II) that had most shaped evangelicals' minds after surveying "dozens of evangelical leaders" for their nominations.
Christy is a given name meaning elegant, graceful, beautiful, princess. The name Christie originated from Italy in 1222. Ireland found the name in 1345, and it took on other connotations, such as angel and lovely. It is also short for the Greek names Christos meaning "anointed one" and Christiana meaning "follower of Christ".
Christy was based on the novel Christy by Catherine Marshall, the widow of Senate chaplain Peter Marshall.
Set in early 20th century Tennessee, this film tells the story of schoolteacher Christy Huddleston who attempts to force a small community into progressing with the outside world. Considered an outsider by the residents of Cutter Gap, North Carolina native Christy is beloved as a teacher but has begun to stir up conflict with her pleas for progress and stories of an outside world of skyscrapers and modern conveniences.
The Christy Awards are awarded each year to recognize novels of excellence written from a Christian worldview. Awards are given in several genres, including contemporary (stand-alone novels and series), historical, romance (contemporary and historical), suspense, and visionary. In addition, an award is given for first novel and young adult.
Due to emigration to the United States, Christy has also been used as an Americanization of Scandinavian last names such as the Danish Christiansen). As a result, a small number of Danes with the last name Christy are descendants of a family which emigrated to the US in the early 20th century. However, most of the children returned to Denmark in the 1920s. For this reason, a large majority of Danish citizens with the last name Christy are related by blood.
literally meaning son of Christian. The spelling variant Kristiansen has identical pronunciation.
Christie's is an art business and a fine arts auction house, currently the world's largest, with sales for the first half of 2012, some $3.5 billion, representing the highest total for a corresponding period in company and art market history.
Christie, California, in Contra Costa County
Christie, the Canadian division of Nabisco
Christie (TTC), subway station in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Christie (company), aka Christie Digital Systems, Inc., a digital projection company
Christie (band), UK rock band
Christie Hospital, cancer-research hospital in Manchester
Christie Pits Park in Toronto
Christie suspension, vehicle suspension system invented by U.S. engineer Walter Christie
Christie Monteiro (Japanese: クリスティ・モンテイロ Hepburn: Kurisuti Monteiro?) is a fictional character in the Tekken video game series. Along with her male counterpart, Eddy Gordo, she is the first Afro Latino of Brazilian nationality in the series.
Christie has been featured in several lists of the "hottest girls" of video games. GameDaily listed her in their "Babes of Tekken" article, stating "When it comes to Tekken, no character moves as gracefully as Christie."
Ilo (Estonian goddess), the Estonian goddess of feasts
iLo Technologies, a Walmart consumer electronics house brand
The Eastern Yi, Dongyi, or Tung-yi (Chinese: 夷, Yí), ancient peoples who lived to the east of the
original zhongguo during the prehistory of ancient China
The Yi people (Chinese: 彝, Yí; Vietnamese: Lô Lô), an ethnic group in modern China, Vietnam, and Thailand
occasional romanizations Rhee, Rhie, and Ri.
Houyi (Hou-i; Chinese: 后羿; pinyin: Hòu Yì; Wade–Giles: Hou4-i4), also called Yiyi (夷羿) or simply Yi, was a mythological Chinese archer. He is sometimes portrayed as a god of archery descended from heaven to aid mankind, and sometimes as the chief of the Youqiong Tribe (有窮氏) during the reign of King Tai Kang of Xia Dynasty. His wife, Chang'e, was a lunar deity.
Chang'e or Chang-o (Chinese: 嫦娥; pinyin: Cháng'é; Wade–Giles: Ch'ang2-o2), originally known as Heng'e or Heng-o (Chinese: 姮娥; pinyin: Héng'é; Wade–Giles: Heng2-o2; changed to avoid name conflict with Emperor Wen of Han), is the Chinese goddess of the Moon. Unlike many lunar deities in other cultures who personify the Moon, Chang'e only lives on the Moon.
Chang'e is the subject of several legends in Chinese mythology, most of which incorporate several of the following elements: Houyi the Archer, a benevolent or malevolent emperor, an elixir of life, and of course, the Moon. In modern times, Chang'e has been the namesake of China's lunar exploration program.
Laozi was a legendary philosopher of ancient China. He is best known as the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching and the founder of philosophical Taoism, but he is also revered as a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions. He is usually dated to around the 6th century BCE and reckoned a contemporary of Confucius, but some historians contend that he actually lived during the Warring States period of the 5th or 4th century BCE. A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty and modern commonfolk of the Li family as a founder of their lineage. Throughout history, Laozi's work has been embraced by various anti-authoritarian movements.
The shang (Tibetan: gchang) is a Tibetan flat bell, a ritual upturned handbell employed by Bönpo and Asian shamans.
The ding is named for the inscription in bronze ware script on the interior wall, which reads 后母戊 (Hòumǔwù), meaning "Queen Mother Wu".
The Japanese and Korean term mu (Japanese: 無; Korean: 무) or Chinese wu (traditional Chinese: 無; simplified Chinese: 无) meaning "not have; without" is a key word in Buddhism, especially the Chan and Zen traditions.
Lyrically the song is about mental illness as it describes Christine, a woman with "22 faces" ("...Personality changes behind her red smile / Every new problem brings a stranger inside / Helplessly forcing one more new disguise...").
Christine is a horror novel by Stephen King, published in 1983. It tells the story of a vintage automobile apparently possessed by supernatural forces.
Set in the then-future year of 1979, it revolves around the eponymous Carrietta "Carrie" N. White, a shy high school girl who uses her newly discovered telekinetic powers to exact revenge on those who tease her—in the process, causing one of the worst disasters in American history. King has commented that he finds the work to be "raw" and "with a surprising power to hurt and horrify." It is one of the most frequently banned books in United States schools. Much of the book is written in an epistolary structure, using newspaper clippings, magazine articles, letters, and excerpts from books to tell how Carrie destroyed the fictional town of Chamberlain, Maine while exacting revenge on her bullying classmates.
Hippo was a supposedly historical Greek woman mentioned by the 1st century AD Latin author Valerius Maximus as an example of chastity. She was also included among the Famous Women written about by Giovanni Boccaccio in the 14th century.
De mulieribus claris (English: Famous Women or On Famous Women or Of Famous Women) is a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccaccio, first published in 1374. It is notable as the first collection devoted exclusively to biographies of women in Western literature.
Eirene or Irene was an ancient Greek artist described by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century. She was the daughter of a painter, and created an image of a girl that was housed at Eleusis.
In Greek mythology the Horae (/ˈhɔːriː/ or /ˈhɔːraɪ/) or Hours (Greek: Ὧραι, Hōrai, pronounced [hɔ̂ːraj], "seasons") were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time. They were originally the personifications of nature in its different seasonal aspects, but in later times they were regarded as goddesses of order in general and natural justice. "They bring and bestow ripeness, they come and go in accordance with the firm law of the periodicities of nature and of life", Karl Kerenyi observed: "Hora means 'the correct moment'." Traditionally, they guarded the gates of Olympus, promoted the fertility of the earth, and rallied the stars and constellations.
The course of the seasons was also symbolically described as the dance of the Horae, and they were accordingly given the attributes of spring flowers, fragrance and graceful freshness. For example, in Hesiod's Works and Days, the fair-haired Horai, together with the Charites and Peitho crown Pandora—she of "all gifts"—with garlands of flowers.
In Greek mythology, Pandora (Greek: Πανδώρα, derived from πᾶν, pān, i.e. "all" and δῶρον, dōron, i.e. "gift", thus "the all-endowed", "the all-gifted" or "the all-giving" ) may have been an early deity about whom little knowledge survives. Her other name, inscribed against her figure on a white-ground kylix in the British Museum, is Anesidora, "she who sends up gifts", up implying "from below" within the earth, which is a clue to an earlier myth.
The number of Horae varied according to different sources, but was most commonly three, either the trio of Thallo, Auxo and Carpo, who were goddesses of the order of nature; or Eunomia, Diké, and Eirene, who were law-and-order goddesses.
In Argos two, rather than three Horae were recognised, presumably winter and summer: Auxesia (possibly another name for Auxo) and Damia (possibly another name for Carpo).
The Ancient Greek word moira (μοῖρα) means a portion or lot of the whole, and is related to meros, "part, lot" and moros, "fate, doom", Latin meritum, "desert, reward", English merit, derived from the PIE root *(s)mer, "to allot, assign".
Moira may mean portion or share in the distribution of booty (ίση μοίρα, isi moira, "equal booty"), portion in life, lot, destiny, (μοίρα έθηκαν αθάνατοι, moiran ethikan athanatoi, "the immortals fixed the destiny") death -moros- (μοίρα θανάτοιο, moira thanatoio, "destiny of death"), portion of the distributed land., The word is also used for something which is meet and right (κατά μοίραν, kata moiran, "according to fate, in order, rightly")
In Greek mythology, the Moirai (Ancient Greek: Μοῖραι, "apportioners", Latinized as Moerae)—often known in English as the Fates—were the white-robed incarnations of destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, euphemistically the "sparing ones", or Fata; also analogous to the Germanic Norns). Their number became fixed at three: Clotho (spinner), Lachesis (allotter) and Atropos (unturnable).
The Norns (Old Norse: norn, plural: nornir) in Norse mythology are female beings who rule the destiny of gods and men, possibly a kind of dísir (see below), and comparable to the Fates in Greek mythology.
In Norse mythology, a dís ("lady", plural dísir) is a ghost, spirit or deity associated with fate who can be both benevolent and antagonistic towards mortal people. Dísir may act as protective spirits of Norse clans. Their original function was possibly that of fertility goddesses who were the object of both private and official worship called dísablót, and their veneration may derive from the worship of the spirits of the dead. The dísir, like the valkyries, norns, and vættir, are almost always referred to collectively.[3
The Old Norse term vættir and its English cognate wights literally mean 'beings' and relate etymologically to other forms of the verb to be, like was and were.
This Saturday morning cartoon series featured four teenagers—Fred Jones, Daphne Blake, Velma Dinkley and Norville "Shaggy" Rogers—and their talking brown Great Dane dog named Scooby-Doo, who solve mysteries involving supposedly supernatural creatures through a series of antics and missteps.
Thelma is a female given name meaning "will, volition" in Greek.
Thelema (/θəˈliːmə/; Koine Greek: [θélima]) is primarily a philosophical law, which has been adopted as a central tenet by some religious organizations. The law of Thelema is "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law. Love is the law, love under will." The law of Thelema was developed by Aleister Crowley, the early 20th-century British writer and ceremonial magician. He believed himself to be the prophet of a new age, the Æon of Horus, based upon a spiritual experience that he and his wife, Rose Edith, had in Egypt in 1904. By his account, a possibly non-corporeal or "praeterhuman" being that called itself Aiwass contacted him and dictated a text known as The Book of the Law or Liber AL vel Legis, which outlined the principles of Thelema. An adherent of Thelema is a Thelemite.
The Thelemic pantheon includes a number of deities, primarily a trinity adapted from ancient Egyptian religion, who are the three speakers of The Book of the Law: Nuit, Hadit and Ra-Hoor-Khuit. Crowley described these deities as a "literary convenience". The religion is founded upon the idea that the 20th century marked the beginning of the Aeon of Horus, in which a new ethical code would be followed; "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law". This statement indicates that adherents, who are known as Thelemites, should seek out and follow their own true path in life, known as their True Will rather than their egotistic desires. The philosophy also emphasizes the ritual practice of Magick.
The word thelema is the English transliteration of the Koine Greek noun θέλημα: "will", from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. As Crowley developed the religion, he wrote widely on the topic, producing what are collectively termed the Holy Books of Thelema. He also included ideas from occultism, Yoga and both Eastern and Western mysticism, especially the Qabalah.
In Thelema, the hexagram is usually depicted with a five-petaled flower in the center which symbolizes a pentacle. The Symbol itself is the equivalent of the Egyptian Ankh or the Rosicrucian's Rosy Cross; which represents the microcosmic forces (the pentacle, representation of the pentagram with 5 elements, the tetragrammaton or YHVH) interweave with the macro-cosmic forces (the hexagram, the representation of the planetary or heavenly cosmic forces, the divine). 
Hadit[pronunciation?] (sometimes Had) refers to a Thelemic version of the Egyptian god Horus. Hadit is the principal speaker of the second chapter of The Book of the Law (written or received by Aleister Crowley in 1904).
Heru-ra-ha[pronunciation?] (literally "Horus sun-flesh", among other possible meanings) is a composite deity within Thelema, a religion that began in 1904 with Aleister Crowley and his Book of the Law. Heru-ra-ha is composed of Ra-Hoor-Khuit and Hoor-paar-kraat. He is associated with the other two major Thelemic deities found in The Book of the Law, Nuit and Hadit, who are also godforms related to ancient Egyptian mythology. Their images link Nuit and Hadit to the established Egyptian deities Nut and Hor-Bhdt (Horus of Edfu).
Goddesses named for and representing the concept Liberty have existed in many cultures, including classical examples dating from the Roman Empire and some national symbols such as the British "Britannia" or the Irish "Kathleen Ni Houlihan".
The figure also resembles Sol Invictus, the Roman god of sun.
Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde
Daphne (/ˈdæfniː/; Greek: Δάφνη, meaning "laurel") is a minor figure in Greek mythology known as a Naiad—a type of female nymph associated with fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of freshwater. There are several versions of the myth, but the general narrative is that because of her beauty, Daphne attracted the attention and ardor of the god Apollo (Phoebus). Apollo pursued her and just before being overtaken, Daphne pleaded to her father, the rivergod Ladon and Ge. for help. So he then transformed Daphne into a laurel tree.
Daphne (/ˈdæfniː/; Greek: Δάφνη, meaning "laurel") is a genus of between 50 and 95 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs in the family Thymelaeaceae, native to Asia, Europe and north Africa. They are noted for their scented flowers and poisonous berries.
Daphne, Op. 82, is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss, subtitled "Bucolic Tragedy in One Act". The German libretto was by Joseph Gregor. The opera is based loosely on the mythological figure Daphne from Ovid's Metamorphoses and includes elements taken from The Bacchae by Euripides.
The Palace of Daphne (Greek: Δάφνη) was one of the major wings of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire (modern Istanbul, Turkey). According to George Codinus, it was named after a statue of the nymph Daphne, brought from Rome.
Daphne Island, in the Galápagos Archipelago
41 Daphne, an asteroid
Daphne, Alabama, a city in the United States
A former suburb of the ancient city of Antioch
Constantiana Daphne, Byzantine fortification on Danube
Daphne (brig), a ship that was wrecked in 1819
SS Daphne, a ship which sank disastrously in 1883
Daphne, a cruise ship operated by Costa Cruises (1979–1997)
Daphné class submarine
Maia (mythology), the eldest of the Pleiades in Greek mythology, also identified with an Ancient Italic goddess of spring and the most beautiful
Her name is related to μαῖα (maia), an honorific term for older women related to μήτηρ (mētēr) 'mother'. Maia also means "midwife" in Greek.
In an archaic Roman prayer, Maia appears as an attribute of Vulcan, in an invocational list of male deities paired with female abstractions representing some aspect of their functionality. She was explicitly identified with Earth (Terra, the Roman counterpart of Gaia) and the Good Goddess (Bona Dea) in at least one tradition. Her identity became theologically intertwined also with the goddesses Fauna, Magna Mater ("Great Goddess", referring to the Roman form of Cybele but also a cult title for Maia), Ops, Juno, and Carna, as discussed at some length by the late antiquarian writer Macrobius. This treatment was probably influenced by the 1st-century BC scholar Varro, who tended to resolve a great number of goddesses into one original "Terra." The association with Juno, whose Etruscan counterpart was Uni, is suggested again by the inscription Uni Mae on the Piacenza Liver.
The month of May (Latin Maius) was supposedly named for Maia, though ancient etymologists also connected it to the maiores, "ancestors," again from the adjective maius, maior, meaning those who are "greater" in terms of generational precedence.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Tellus or Terra Mater ("Mother Earth") is a goddess of the earth. Although Tellus and Terra are hardly distinguishable during the Imperial era, Tellus was the name of the original earth goddess in the religious practices of the Republic or earlier. The scholar Varro (1st century BC) lists Tellus as one of the di selecti, the twenty principal gods of Rome, and one of the twelve agricultural deities. She is regularly associated with Ceres in rituals pertaining to the earth and agricultural fertility.
n Greek mythology, Gaia (/ˈɡeɪ.ə/ or /ˈɡaɪ.ə/; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Gē Γῆ, "land" or "earth"; also Gaea, or Ge) was the personification of the Earth, one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia was the great mother of all: the primal Greek Mother Goddess; creator and giver of birth to the Earth and all the Universe; the heavenly gods, the Titans and the Giants were born from her union with Uranus (the sky), while the sea-gods were born from her union with Pontus (the sea). Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra.
I would like to ask, what papyrus of the Jewish or Christian texts includes references to Sophia? I believe the Bible would be what is referenced, and to my knowledge the name Sophia is never mentioned. I would like to see which texts you refer to.
The earliest depictions of women riding with both legs on the same side of the horse can be seen in Greek vases, sculptures, and Celtic stones. Medieval depictions show women seated aside with the horse being led by a man, or seated on a small padded seat (a pillion) behind a male rider. Ninth century depictions show a small footrest, or planchette added to the pillion. These designs did not allow a woman to control a horse; she could only be a passenger. Women had to ride astride in order to obtain the security of position required to actually control the animal themselves.
In Europe, the sidesaddle developed in part because of cultural norms which considered it unbecoming for a woman to straddle a horse while riding. Further, long skirts were the usual fashion and riding astride in such attire was often impractical, awkward, and could be "immodest". However, women did ride horses and needed to be able to control their own animals, so there was a need for a saddle designed to allow both control of the horse and modesty for the rider.
The earliest functional "sidesaddle" was credited to Anne of Bohemia (1366–1394). It was a chair-like affair where the woman sat sideways on the horse with her feet on a small footrest. The design made it difficult for a woman to both stay on and use the reins to control the horse, so the animal was usually led by another rider, sitting astride. The insecure design of the early sidesaddle also contributed to the popularity of the Palfrey, a smaller horse with smooth ambling gaits, as a suitable mount for women.
Anne of Bohemia (11 May 1366 – 7 June 1394) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Richard II. A member of the House of Luxembourg, she was the eldest daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Elizabeth of Pomerania.
She had four brothers, including Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, and one younger sister, Margaret of Bohemia, Burgravine of Nuremberg. She also had five half-siblings from her father's previous marriages.
Richard II married Anne of Bohemia as a result of the Great Schism in the Papacy that had resulted in two rival popes. According to Eduard Perroy, Pope Urban VI actually sanctioned the marriage between Richard and Anne, in an attempt to create an alliance on his behalf, particularly so that he might be stronger against the French and their preferred pope, Clement. Anne's father was the most powerful monarch in Europe at the time, ruling over about half of Europe's population and territory.
The marriage was against the wishes of many members of his nobility and members of parliament, and occurred primarily at the instigation of Richard's intimate, Michael de la Pole. Although Richard had been offered Caterina Visconti, one of the daughters of Bernabò Visconti of Milan, who would have brought a great deal of money with her as dowry, Anne was chosen – bringing no direct financial benefits to England. She brought with her no dowry, and in return for her hand in marriage, Richard gave 20,000 florins (around £4,000,000 in today's value) in payment to her brother Wenceslas. There were also only a few diplomatic benefits – although English merchants were now allowed to trade freely within both Bohemian lands, and lands of the Holy Roman Empire, this was not much when compared to the usual diplomatic benefits from marriages made as a result of the war with France. It is therefore no surprise that the marriage was unpopular.
Anne's wedding to Richard II was the fifth royal wedding in Westminster Abbey and was not followed by any other royal wedding in Westminster Abbey for another 537 years.
They were married for 12 years, but had no children. Anne's death from plague in 1394 at Sheen Manor was a devastating blow to Richard, whose subsequent unwise conduct lost him his throne.
Richard married his second wife, Isabella of Valois, on 31 October 1396.
The period that historians refer to as the "tyranny" of Richard II began towards the end of the 1390s. The king had Gloucester, Arundel and Warwick arrested in July 1397. The timing of these arrests and Richard's motivation are not entirely clear. Although one chronicle suggested that a plot was being planned against the king, there is no evidence that this was the case. It is more likely that Richard had simply come to feel strong enough to safely retaliate against these three men for their role in events of 1386–88 and eliminate them as threats to his power. Arundel was the first of the three to be brought to trial, at the parliament of September 1397. After a heated quarrel with the king, he was condemned and executed. Gloucester was being held prisoner by the Earl of Nottingham at Calais while awaiting his trial. As the time for the trial drew near, Nottingham brought news that Gloucester was dead. It is thought likely that the king had ordered him to be killed to avoid the disgrace of executing a prince of the blood. Warwick was also condemned to death, but his life was spared and he was sentenced to life imprisonment instead. Arundel's brother Thomas Arundel, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was exiled for life. Richard then took his persecution of adversaries to the localities.
King Richard the Second is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in approximately 1595. It is based on the life of King Richard II of England (ruled 1377–1399) and is the first part of a tetralogy, referred to by some scholars as the Henriad, followed by three plays concerning Richard's successors: Henry IV, Part 1; Henry IV, Part 2; and Henry V.
The idea that Richard was to blame for the later-15th century Wars of the Roses was prevalent as late as the 19th century, but came to be challenged in the twentieth. More recent historians prefer to look at the Wars of the Roses in isolation from the reign of Richard II.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster and York for the throne of England. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, although there was related fighting both before and after this period. They resulted from the social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, combined with the minority and weak rule of Henry VI
A more practical design, developed in the 16th century, has been attributed to Catherine de' Medici. In her design, the rider sat facing forward, hooking her right leg around the pommel of the saddle with a horn added to the near side of the saddle to secure the rider's right knee. The footrest was replaced with a "slipper stirrup", a leather-covered Stirrup iron into which the rider's left foot was placed. This saddle allowed the rider both to stay on and to control her own horse, at least at slower speeds.
The use of paired stirrups is credited to the Chinese Jin Dynasty and came to Europe during the Middle Ages. Some argue that the stirrup was one of the basic tools used to create and spread modern civilization, possibly as important as the wheel or printing press.
However, not all women adopted the sidesaddle at all times. Women such as Diane de Poitiers (mistress to Henry II of France) and Marie Antoinette were known to ride astride. Catherine the Great of Russia went so far as to commission a portrait showing her riding astride wearing a male officer's uniform.
The phrase "Let them eat cake" is often attributed to Marie Antoinette, but there is no evidence she ever uttered it, and it is now generally regarded as a "journalistic cliché". It may have been a rumor started by angry French peasants as a form of libel. This phrase originally appeared in Book VI of the first part (finished in 1767, published in 1782) of Rousseau's putative autobiographical work, Les Confessions.
Marie Antoinette is referenced in the lyrics of the song 'Killer Queen' by the rock band Queen
On the same day, her hair was cut off and she was driven through Paris in an open cart, wearing a plain white dress. At 12:15 p.m. October 16, 1793, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthday, Marie Antoinette was beheaded at the Place de la Révolution (present-day Place de la Concorde). Her last words were "Pardon me sir, I meant not to do it", to Henri Sanson the executioner, whose foot she had accidentally stepped on after climbing the scaffold. Her body was thrown into an unmarked grave in the Madeleine cemetery, rue d'Anjou (which was closed the following year).
The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is often considered the Golden Age of the Russian Empire and the Russian nobility. The Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service.
She was born in Stettin, Pomerania, Prussia as Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, and came to power following a coup d'état and the assassination of her husband, Peter III, at the end of the Seven Years' War. Russia was revitalized under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe.
Catherine had a reputation as a patron of the arts, literature, and education. The Hermitage Museum, which now occupies the whole Winter Palace, began as Catherine's personal collection. At the instigation of her factotum, Ivan Betskoy, she wrote a manual for the education of young children, drawing from the ideas of John Locke, and founded (1764) the famous Smolny Institute, which admitted young girls of the nobility.
She wrote comedies, fiction, and memoirs, while cultivating Voltaire, Diderot, and d'Alembert—all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation in their writings. The leading economists of her day, such as Arthur Young and Jacques Necker, became foreign members of the Free Economic Society, established on her suggestion in Saint Petersburg in 1765. She lured[clarification needed] the scientists Leonhard Euler and Peter Simon Pallas from Berlin and Anders Johan Lexell from Sweden to the Russian capital.
What does that have to do with the female principle of wisdom, which in the greek is sophia? I don't want to take this off topic too much. I'll create a thread on this when I can (still don't have 25 replies).