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Another element which entered into the ethnic fusion in Mycenæan Greece was the Danubian. The influence of Danubian culture extended as far south as Thessaly, where the Achæans were predominant. These Achæan pastoralists were drifting southward into the Peloponnesus as early as the Late Minoan I Period, and some of them may have reached Crete. But their greatest migration appears to have occurred at the close of the Pelopid Dynasty, and it is probable that they were the late conquerors of Mycenæ and Tiryns. After holding sway in the Peloponnesus for a period of uncertain duration, they were overthrown in turn by the Dorians.
The second raid was of great dimensions. It included the Danauna, the Danaans, the Shakalsha, the Tursha, the Tikkarai, who may have come from Zakro in Crete, and the Pulesti, the Philistines. The sea force which sailed south by Cyprus was supported by land raiders from North Syria and Anatolia. Among the latter were the Philistines, who gave their name to Palestine. Rameses III won victories on sea and land, being assisted by the raiders' kinsmen, the Shardana mercenaries.
marble funerary stele of a couple, from Soa (modern Altintas in Turkey), Roman period
The Greek inscription reads "Aphion dedicated her husband, Gaius, to the savior Hecate, and Apellas and Gaius have honored the memory of their parents." The stele is signed by the stone cutter. The couple are shown in a traditional pose, and the wife holds in her hand a distaff and spindle, symbol of feminine virtue. Above them, are beautifully carved symbols of daily life, including a wax tablet on the left, and on the right a bird standing on a wool basket, a comb, and a mirror. The eastern religious cults are depicted in the central figures, including the two young males carrying lunar symbols, and the figure of Artemis Pergaia/Diana Pergensis, with her head surrounded by a rayed halo and the symbol of the crescent moon, imported from Perge, capital of Pamphylia. The most important deity, however is Hecate, the triple-bodied goddess who is Diana's underworld representative, to whom Aphion dedicated the spirit of her husband.
Istanbul, National Archaeological Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2007
On this thing again, the mirror must be a lunar, reflective and feminine sort of thing. Here again thought to be Greek I believe but again the Celts were very much a part of Greece. In effect it is a Solar thing, the feminine of same, lunar reflection.
...Those beast look like Lions. And just what are those small beasts riding on the back of the top two beasts? Monkeys? ....
reply to post by beansidhe
Hay, do you want to call that the "Hecate" cartouche for the time being? She has so many names its true but maybe we should pick one. Maybe the Pict stones were applicable are Hecate stones.
edit on 27-3-2014 by Logarock because: s
However, the triskele is a symbol of harmony and unification, not only in mythology, but also in geometry, its form and method of construction being a perfect example of the Golden Ratio (also called the golden section (Latin: sectio aurea), so central to the mathematical and religious movement called Pythagoreanism, with which the Celts were familiar:
“And the Celtic Druids investigated to the very highest point the Pythagorean philosophy, after Zamolxis, by birth a Thracian, a servant of Pythagoras, became to them the originator of this discipline. Now after the death of Pythagoras, Zamolxis, repairing thither, became to them the originator of this philosophy. The Celts esteem these as prophets and seers, on account of their foretelling to them certain (events), from calculations and numbers by the Pythagorean art”.
(Hippolytus. “Philosophumena” XXII) "
Revolving around the Central Fire above Earth were the Moon, the Sun, the planets, and finally—perhaps fixed and not rotating at all—were the stars. Revolving around the Central Fire below Earth was another hypothetical astronomical object, the Counter-Earth. Whether Philolaus believed Earth to be round or flat—there is "no explicit statement about the shape of the earth in Philolaus' system"—he did not believe the earth rotated, so that the Counter-Earth and the Central Fire were both not visible from Earth's surface—or at least not from the hemisphere where Greece was located.
I saw the two who from their station quickly fell;
By the commands of Nwython greatly were they afflicted.
I saw the men, who made a great breach, with the dawn at Adoyn;
And the head of Dyvynwal Vych, ravens devoured it.
Manawydan is mentioned in the poem known as "Pa gur yv y porthaur" ("What Man is the Gatekeeper?"), where he is named as one of the warriors in King Arthur's retinue. The poem praises him as providing worthy counsel and for splintering shields at a place called Tryfrwyd; later in the poem this battle is associated with cinbin or dogheads and a figure known as Garwlwyd
The lyre as an attribute of Apollo, is well known, and the association of lyres and depictions of Apollo on Greek coins is common. The earliest Celtic gold staters are derived from the staters of Philip of Macedon and show, on the obverse, the head of Apollo. The design lasted, in abstract form, to the end of Celtic coinage in Britain.
While the Macedonian coins did not have a lyre as part of the design, there are a number of depictions of Apollo in Gaul during the Roman period. He is shown nude, and with his lyre, but often these images are associated with healing springs. Some inscriptions refer to healing hot springs, and even today we have a famous mineral water containing the name of Apollo. Caesar informs us that the Celts, like other nations at the time, had the idea that Apollo averts illness. All of this gives weight to the opinion that lyres on Celtic coins are merely a reference to Apollo. That the lyre on its own seems to refer to Apollo as the god of music should alert us to a problem with this symbol, and possible references to health and healing springs are unlikely subjects to find on coins.
Treating symbols in isolation, without taking the context in which they appear, or their substitution with other symbols in a particular coinage, can lead to a pastiche of interpretation where many gods and myths seem to be fighting for dominance even on a single coin. Such a situation, if believed, belies the very character of Celtic art, which could be expressed as multiple variations on a theme
Celtic art on coins reached its greatest expression in Armorica, and although other regions have produced very beautiful coins, it is in Armorica that we consistently find the most complex designs. Lyres are also fairly common on Armorican coins. The lyre symbol usually has four "strings" or lines emanating from a sound box consisting of a pellet within a circle. The latter element is a well known sun symbol, and thus appropriate to an attribute of Apollo. Some inscriptions from Roman Gaul have Apollo's epithet as "Grannos", which has been connected to the sun. John Rhys makes the following connection:
Grannos is probably to be referred to the same origin as the Sanskrit verb ghar,"to glow, burn, shine; "ghrna, ghrni," heat, glow, sunshine.
With this translation we can combine both the sun and hot springs. The presence of the lyre, while it may be understood merely as an attribute of Apollo, seems to be given greater significance on Armorican coins.