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The JFK Assassination----NASA and USAEC Roles-----50 Years is long Enough

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posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 05:28 AM
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There are several good entry points for information leading to essentially solving the JFK assassination, with a high degree of knowledge. This approach will consider a special thing that happened with lots of Lee Harvey Oswald's friends that worked for Reily Coffee in Old South's New Orleans. Jim Garrison found a large part of the plot to kill JFK from various "leakers" in New Orleans. One of the most significant clues came when Jim Garrison's investigators looked up the people that knew and worked around LHO.

This is a major key, which if followed historically, leads directly to the JFK plotters and the larger Conspiracy that Jim Garrison was having much success in discovering. The starting point is captured here and is the number of the people around LHO who got much better jobs at NASA in New Orleans.


Source:

NASA jobs of LHO's pals

Citation




One of the things about Reily’s that later aroused Garrison’s suspicions was the number of employees that left shortly after Oswald’s departure to begin careers in the aerospace industry. For example, Oswald’s superiors, Alfred Claude and Emmett Barbee both left Reily’s in July and went to work for NASA in eastern New Orleans.(3) Two of Oswald’s co-workers, John D. Branyon and Dante Marachini, were also later hired by NASA.(4) Marachini is of particular interest since he was a self-described friend of David Ferrie’s as well as Clay Shaw’s next door neighbor.(5) A vice-president of Reily’s who testified before the Warren Commission, William Monaghan, was a former career FBI man who left the bureau to become an executive with Standard Fruit.(6) After his stint at Reily’s he, along with William Reily’s brother, Eustis, show up on the board of directors of Aaron Kohn’s Metropolitan Crime Commission.(7) According to an INCA bulletin from 1962, Monaghan is listed as a charter member of that organization as well.




Next, we look at the founders for NASA, then USAEC.




posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 05:40 AM
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NASA? Seriously?

Kennedy wanted us to go to the Moon, so why would people who were involved with his murder get promoted at NASA?

Oh, wait, according to your citation, it wasn't even people involved with his death. It was some people Oswald happened to work with. And your citation is from a book by wacky theory-generator Jim Garrison.

This is the kind of junk that always bedevils real conspiracy investigation. 50 years from now, people will be muddying the waters by saying that Mohammed Atta was connected to the Department of Transportation.



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 05:46 AM
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reply to post by MagnumOpus
 


It was John Glenn in the Book Depository's kitchen with the candlestick.

If the people at NASA wanted to kill JFK they could have lured him to the Cape ("Mr. President, this will all be named after you soon"), put him on one of those whirly-accelerating machines, and forget to turn it off. JFK, shaken and stirred!

All this probably shows is that people change jobs, and in the mid-1960s both NASA and the aerospace industry were growing on a daily basis. If there was anything unusual here it's that more people mentioned in the Kennedy investigations didn't eventually work for NASA, a major Texas employee.
edit on 12-1-2014 by Aleister because: (no reason given)



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 05:52 AM
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The history for NASA is one of the most interesting issues for the JFK hit. Most know that NASA would not have been possible without the German NAZI Rocket Scientists that surrendered to the US and were brought into the US by Operation Paperclip. Operation Paperclip was connect with Allan Dulles of the OSS, who is a Mason. Persons like Werner von Braun and his German Commander, Walter Dornberger, were brought into the US, and more soon to follow in later years.


In the US, they were soon put on a military compound down in Ft. Bliss, Texas and began doing rocket testing at the White Sands Test Range just North of Ft. Bliss, which was partly in New Mexico. Here the V-2s were tested that were collected and shipped to the Roswell Air Force Base in New Mexico and this just East of the White Sands Range.

As things progressed and they proved they could develop better rockets the operations were moved to Huntsville, Alabama and into the Redstone Arsenal Rocket Test facility. These became the early operations to mate rockets to nuclear weapons and the installations of rocket silos across America.

Soon, Texas saw the strategic advantages of NAZI rockets and their scientists. Then we see politician Lyndon Johnson start backing rocket programs and soon that National Space Agency, and that soon followed by NASA. Basically, what came to be was the NAZI Rocket Scientists owed their lives to Mason Allan Dulles, and then soon Mason Initiate Lyndon Johnson.

Werner von Braun's Commander in Germany was Walter Dornberger, and he ended up being assigned to the Bell Aerospace group in Dallas, Texas and the effort there was to develop a fluorine based rocket engine for the NASA programs as that fuel was the highest specific impulse power liquid fuel, and one of the most dangerous.

NASA came under the security watch of the DISC, Defense Industry Intelligence Command, which was partly Mason J Edgar Hoover and Louis Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada's Command. DISC watched over NASA, TVA, USAEC, and other strategic and military based operations and facilities, and retained British alliances.



Source:

Operation Paperclip


Citation:





Beginning on 19 July 1945, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) managed the captured ARC rocketeers under a program called Operation Overcast. However, when the "Camp Overcast" name of the scientists' quarters became locally-known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in March 1946. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.[8][9][10]
Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence described nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, the German nuclear energy project principal, as "worth more to us than ten divisions of Germans." In addition to rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also sought chemists, physicians, and naval weaponeers.[11]
Meanwhile, the Technical Director of the German Army Rocket Center, Wernher von Braun, was jailed at P.O. Box 1142, a secret military-intelligence prison in Fort Hunt, Virginia in the United States. Since the prison was unknown to the international community, its operation by the US was in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1929, which the U.S. had ratified.[12]





posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 05:57 AM
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NASA and the Masons is interesting from the standpoint of Reily Coffee workers that knew Lee Harvey Oswald got nice high paying jobs working for NASA in New Orleans. Most don't notice, but NASA's astronauts are almost all Masons. The plot to frame LHO came from these Old Southern Confederates in Alabama and the home of the German rocket scientists at RedStone Arsenal at Huntsville, Ala. Masons highly controlled NASA because of the issues of Hitler being pro-Catholic and going against the Masons order in NAZI Germany. imho

We also know the Lyndon Johnson was the father of NASA, and he was a Mason connected with Mason Hoover. Those that knew LHO had to get a payoff to keep quiet, and the Masons have great job connections to bribe people into silence.

Never forget that NASA was basically started by Masons: Dulles, Truman, and LBJ, and its ranks are filled with Masons.

As an example, These are Mason Astronauts of NASA:

Source:

Mason Astronaughts

Citation:




Astronauts
Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., Clear Lake Lodge No. 1417, Seabrook, TX
Leroy Gordon Cooper, Carbondale Lodge No. 82, Carbondale, CO
Donn F. Eisele, Luthor B. Turner Lodge No. 732, Columbus, OH
John Glenn, Concord Lodge No. 688, Concord, OH
Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Mitchell Lodge No. 228, Mitchell, IN
James Irwin, Tejon Lodge No. 104, Colorado Springs, CO
Edgar Mitchell, Artesia Lodge No. 28, Artesia, NM
Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Canaveral Lodge No. 339, Cocoa Beach, FL
Thomas Stafford, Western Star Lodge No. 138, Weatherford, OK
James E. Webb, University Lodge No. 408, Chapel Hill, NC
Paul J. Weitz, Lawrence Lodge No. 708, Erie, PA




posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 05:59 AM
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Once one gets into the subject of NASA, one can take notice of the DISC agency set up by Hoover that is then connected with Louis Bloomfield in Montreal, Canada. Bloomfield is a suspect that Jim Garrison wanted to talk to pertaining to the JFK hit and Clay Shaw. Bloomfield took control of PERMINDEX from high ranking Mason named George Mandel of PERMINDEX. imho

Meanwhile, back in Oak Ridge that is also overseen by DISC there is a person that went to high school in Chicago with Jack Ruby, who is Johnson's man in Texas in 60s. An Oak Ridge worker at the Y-12 nuclear weapons plant named Ray Tucker, Sr. is credited by Masons working at Y-12 as being the one that turned DISC/Hoover/Bloomfield, Ruby/Johnson/Hoover, and Bloomfield/PERMINDEX/Hoover/Mandel against JFK and conspired to have JFK killed using the PERMINDEX assassination methods. imho

Jim Garrison was hot on the trail of the Masons and when JFK delivered his speech to the Press that nailed Secret Societies to the Cross, the Masons went ballistic on JFK as the Race Riots continued to cause Southern Masons to hate JFK.

As JFK failed to back Israel's Bomb project and Ben Gurion quit, the PERMINDEX agents connected with the Mossad were more than willing to assist in the killing of JFK in joint conspiracy with the Masons that also hated JFK.

Oak Ridge, via Ray Tucker, Sr., was the person that started the conspiracy into high gear as they tried to kill JFK in Miami, then Chicago, then succeeded in Dallas. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:00 AM
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So, when the Jewish factions that hated JFK were associated with the Masons that hated JFK, and that connected with NASA's NAZI's there was a problem. Because if the NASA NAZI's connected with DISC decided to burn the Jewish connections with DISC/PERMINDEX, that would expose the whole mess. imho

Oak Ridge had been working with NASA to build the world's largest fluorine production plant down at Cape Canaveral, Fla. for the Moon Mission propulsion systems. So, the Jewish elements in DISC had to get the NAZI to buy in hard on the JFK hit. This was done via getting the NAZI rocket scientists commander in Dallas that was working for Bell Aerospace Systems to set up Lee Oswald via the associations with Mike Paine. Walter Dornberger was the ardent NAZI that came to the US with a hundred plus other NAZI's via the intervention of Allan Dulles, who was a high ranking Mason. imho

Once Dulles and Bloomfield saw the NAZIs would back Dulles and Bloomfield the plan was on to kill JFK with the Redstone NAZI's backing.

Then one can see how DISC and Bloomfield / Mason Dulles are connected and that to Mason Hoover, and that high level National Security system also tied to the Oak Ridge Masons and then Y-12's Ray Tucker, Sr to Jack Ruby. then to LBJ. imho

So, when the Dallas plan gets there they have lots of the backing from the Mason Hoover types that ran the CIA via Mason Allen Dulles. CIA's General Cabel's brother runs Dallas, and along with HL Hunt and General Walker they all hate JFK.

Then Mason George Wallace shows up with JCS Curtis LeMay to announce they plan to run against JFK, and that is funded by HL Hunt and Mason Clint Murchison, who has the big Hoover party to celebrate they are going to install Mason LBJ in place of JFK the day before Nov. 22 day of Dallas JFK hate.

Then a few days after the JFK hit Hoover is in a panic and needs a Mason Composed Commission to fake an investigation to find LHO as the sole person responsible. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:01 AM
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Keep in mind that Allan Dulles imported all these Paperclip NAZI's into the US, including the Ardent NAZI Walter Dornburger in Dallas working on the Fluorine based Rocket Engines for the Lunar Lander. Oak Ridge and NASA have extensive connections with the Fluorine projects that both Oak Ridge and NASA used.

So, when the NAZI's get to the US, they are down in Ft. Bliss, Texas and working out of the White Sands Test Range just across the New Mexico border testing V-2's and designing more powerful rocket units, to take on the Russian rocket boys. imho

Dulles gets LBJ to back the NAZIs, and soon they are moved to the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama and the home of Mason George Wallace. Dallas is loaded with the same minded Civil Rights haters as Alabama. So, the join forces to kill JFK with just a little prodding from Ray Tucker from Oak Ridge.

So, the alliances are easy to spot via the Fluorine uses by Oak Ridge and NASA, and that tied to Walter Dornberger in Dallas working for Bell Aerospace to make the fluorine rocket engines for NASA.

Dornberger is part of DISC and backs Dulles and gets Mike Paine to set up LHO into the TSBD to be the patsy for the JFK hit. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:02 AM
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Everybody got something from the JFK conspiracy and what Oak Ridge got was the cover up of their biggest problem, which was the Fluorine toxic issues that plagued the project from the beginning in Buffalo, New York and the Harshaw Chemical works on making fluorine gas generators.

Even the NAZI's knew the serious problems with fluorine and the Masons could help to keep the health issues of fluorine out of the public's view and keep the uranium enrichment projects running to battle the Russians in the Cold War. imho

Oak Ridge got rid of JFK and in return they get zero notice for the extreme health and environmental effects of the fluorine releases used in their weapons production process.

All the fluorine toxic issues cover up did was enrich the AMA doctors due to the chronic illness process due to fluorine in the public being allowed to rise.

So, even the mind numbing effects of the fluorine secrets from Germany and IG Farben are part of the JFK conspiracy via Dornberger/Bloomfield/DISC//NASA/Oak Ridge. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:12 AM
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What few people realize is that the Atomic Bomb Project, which became the USAEC, was a highly Mason oriented project from the beginning. The issues of Hitler and Europe were also about the Royalist Money being led by the London Masons Banking systems. So, it is not very far fetched to suggest the US Masons backing the Bomb project. This speaks to some of the odd occurrences linked with Masons. imho

FDR was a Mason helping the English Masons in the European War, and Truman was also a Mason and caused all kinds of problems after the war with creating the CIA for Hoover and eventually getting Mason Allan Dulles to run the CIA in JFK's time.

Oak Ridge gained a number of Masons in their operations and they hired other Masons, just like happened with NASA. Such provided for a group that would not tell about problems in the operations. So, serious problems with the fluorine chemicals of the Manhattan Project / USAEC could be hidden. As these groups turned against JFK over Civil Rights issues in Clinton, Tn. and later against Mason George Wallace in Alabama the Masons wanted JFK dead and the Mason imitate LBJ installed. imho

The following is a little over the top on drama, but it makes the point that the USAEC is highly Mason controlled, and that together with NASA being the same created problems for JFK. JFK as part of his Press Speech, came out being highly against Secret Societies, and these composed the Southern Civil Rights resistance in Alabama and Texas, via Masons like George Wallace and Clint Murchison in Texas. imho

Source:

USAEC Masonic Origin Example

Citation:




But the bomb was not only a leftist project...it was also the work of that rather mysterious secret society, the Freemasons. FDR, our thirty second President, was a thirty second degree Mason, and Truman, our thirty third President, was a thirty third degree Mason. The thirty third degree is particularly important in Freemasonry, probably because most human spines have thirty three vertebrae, and mystics have long believed that the kundalini energy rises up the spine from the base chakra, bringing enlightenment. Roosevelt (and Hitler as well) took office in 1933, and the first bomb test was less than a degree off the thirty third parallel.

edit on 12-1-2014 by MagnumOpus because: The Mason Theme exposed on the JFK hit via NASA and USAEC operations connected with DISC. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:27 AM
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Oh, so this is another Jewish and Mason bashing thread. You started out with some data, although odd, and didn't go into the Mason-hating stuff, and then there it was, like an onslaught. So are you saying that NASA and it's wonderful programs and missions is a Masonic and Jewish plot to...what...to conquer space? Well, okay. Yay!?



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:31 AM
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Then one only has to connect that the CIA office in New Orleans was in the Mason Building and that Allan Dulles was a Mason. Then that Guy Banister got all the assignments for Dave Ferrie from the CIA office in the New Orleans Mason building. Then that former FBI boss Guy Banister was the one that arranged to Sheep-dip Lee Harvey Oswald for being a Communist supporting Castro, and Banister was one of Mason Hoovers directors of the Chicago FBI. Then the pieces quickly fall into place. imho


Then one finds the CIA leadership was the father of NASA, Allan Dulles, and he had extensive Mason connections to get the pals of Lee Harvey Oswald at Reily Coffee great high paying jobs at NASA New Orleans, which is also connected with DISC. Then with such payola, these folks kept all they knew of the Masons plot to kill JFK a big secret from the world. imho


One of the biggest secrets of the JFK hit information was that the CIA office in New Orleans was in the Mason's building, and that secret led directly to Mason Allan Dulles and the CIA, then Mason Hoover, then Mason George Mandel of PERMINDEX, then Mason Clint Murchison of HL Hunt fame. Then the Hoover Party hosted by Mason Clint Murchison the day before JFK is killed where Hoover shows up with LBJ and LBJ's mistress, Madeline Brown, reports LBJ told her JFK would soon be dead.


Then, one has most of the central plotters to kill JFK in a neat pile. The Southern Jurisdiction Masons also hate blacks and still practice segregation via their Prince Hall Mason business, and a good part of the Mason's issues back the South will rise again type thing, and these Southern Mason hated JFK over Civil Rights. Clinton, Tennessee was a big deal for Oak Ridge, as that was the beginning of the Clinton Engineering works, or the Oak Ridge Manhattan Project for the fluorine enrichment of Uranium. imho

Just days before the JFK hit, Mason George Wallace and Curtis LeMay show up in Dallas to report they will run against JFK and that they were being bankrolled by racist HL Hunt in Dallas. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:48 AM
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Masons and the New World Order Process that JFK didn't play along with as a Catholic President.

In the beginning of the US, Masons played a dominate role in the founding of America. In these times, they broke away from Royalist's control of the English Masons. The Constitution was a New Plan and that Plan was Freedom for All.

But in the Civil War, due to English slavery latent effects, the issues of Constitutional insurrection Masonry took a bad hold on Masons and Albert Pike became the hero of Southern Masons, and much of these extremely bad Albert Pike methods are what JFK was going head to head against via the Southern Masons in Civil Rights and the issue of Mason Hoover calling Civil Rights as a Communist Threat. But the Guiding Light of these Southern Masons was all about segregation, just as they still make via the Prince Hall Masons of the Old South. imho

Mason Albert Pike was behind the Abe Lincoln hit and Mason Andrew Jackson pardoned the traitor Albert Pike. Pike backed the British Masons that sought control over the US, and Pike also tried to make the South Rise again by his post Civil War insurrection methods to keep the Civil War and various forms of slavery alive in the South. This is what Mason George Wallace, Mason Clint Murchison, Mason Edgar Hoover, HL Hunt, General Walker all backed and sought. imho They went against Eisenhower and JFK on Civil Rights, and all backed killing JFK for the same reason European Masons battled Europe's Catholic control.

It was then that JFK encounter General Edwin Walker as an instigator in Civil Rights, and how General Walker paired up with HL Hunt and Mason Clint Murchison down in Texas. JFK had General Walker Committed for a time, and Walker joined with the Old South Masons in the interests to kill JFK. The Alabama Mason George Wallace supplied his speech writer named Asa Carter to kick off the riots on Clinton, Tennessee that started the Oak Ridge USAEC Masons to hate JFK's Civil Rights issues against Mason George Wallace. imho


These are the associations and factors that allow the serious students of the JFK hit to understand the players in that era.


Source:

Not only NASA and USAEC


Citation:




"All the staff officers Washington trusted were Masons, and all the leading generals of the army were Masons: Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall, James Madison, Gen. Greene, Gen. Lee, Gen. Sullivan, Lord Stirling, the two Putnams, Gen. Steuben, Montgomery, Jackson, Gist, Henry Knox and Ethan Allen were Masons. They all gathered around their Master Mason Washington and they all met at the 'Temple of Virtue,' 'a rude structure forming an oblong square forty by sixty feet, one story in height, a single entrance which was flanked by two pillars... The atmosphere which surrounded Washington was Masonic and it may be said that the framework of his mind was Masonic." (p. 250)

---------------

"Yet it remains our secret that those Gentiles who betray their own and most precious interests, by joining us in our plot should never know that these associations are of our creation and that they serve our purpose...

"One of the many triumphs of our Freemasonry is that those Gentiles who become members of our Lodges, should never suspect that we are using them to build their own jails, upon whose terraces we shall erect the throne of our Universal King of Israel; and should never know that we are commanding them to forge the chains of their own servility to our future King of the World."


edit on 12-1-2014 by MagnumOpus because: The Masons sought death for Catholic JFK. imho



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 06:59 AM
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Maggers, your previous thread about the Masons and JFK was shot down, laughed at, kicked over, buried, exhumed, laughed at again and is now decomposing at the bottom of a shallow trench after being locked by the Mods.

So you've decided to ante up again and effectively restart it. Well, good luck with that. I'll be watching over there to see how much of a fool you make of yourself. Given how easy it was to refute almost everything you said last time, I'm guessing that this thread is going to be just as amusing. And not at all educational.



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 07:06 AM
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off-topic post removed to prevent thread-drift


 



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 07:10 AM
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MagnumOpus
ATS seems to have gathered a few Masons. And all they do is heckle anyone exposing the Southern Masons desire to kill JFK. imho

However, I made a lot of points from the ATS leadership for that theme, that you didn't get to see.


So, secrecy cuts both ways. But the truth on Masons behind the JFK hit still gets to be seen!

And the disgruntled Mason become obvious, disturbed because there are cracks in the Mason's walls of repugnant worship. imho



Teensie problem with your rather paranoid rant: I'm not a mason. Never been a mason. Don't ever intend being a mason. I'm just someone who can use Google and who actually reads cites. If I recall correctly you made a total fool of yourself over your claim that the British didn't shut down the Atlantic slave trade. Which, as I proved, was incorrect.



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 07:19 AM
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reply to post by AngryCymraeg
 


I'm not a Mason either (not that there's anything wrong with them), and went other directions. I love history, and actually get some good nuggets out of the OPs threads, but when he ties-in Masonic plots to every aspect of human society that he considers evil (NASA and space exploration among them?) it does tingle my sense of fairness and has me question his motives. When he sticks with the history and not the splashing of tar and feathers on everyone - including the astronauts, who, I assume, he is saying got their positions because they were Masons - and stops trying to tie American heroes such as the Mercury and Apollo crews into a plot to kill JFK, he'll have a better thread, imnho.
edit on 12-1-2014 by Aleister because: (no reason given)
edit on 12-1-2014 by Aleister because: (no reason given)
edit on 12-1-2014 by Aleister because: (no reason given)



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 07:34 AM
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reply to post by Aleister
 


At the rate he's going, he'll be tying Elvis, Lord Lucan and the Loch Ness Monster into the JFK assassination. It's getting ridiculous. Apparently there are masons behind every conspiracy. Behind every lamppost for that matter.



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 07:34 AM
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MagnumOpus
ATS seems to have gathered a few Masons. And all they do is heckle anyone exposing the Southern Masons desire to kill JFK. imho



Yes, we have masons here, staff included. It's quite obvious who they are by their willingness to show it on their avatars. There are also lots of other pidgeon holes to stuff members and staff into, if you feel like it, but it'll get you exactly nowhere.

You say that "all they do" is heckling. Nothing could be further from the truth.

When it comes to the JFK assassination... well... there have been lots of theories over the years. The masons being behind it is just another one and, if it requires exploring, that's just fine, but attacking fellow members (or staff) who simply disagree isn't going to fly very well, I'm afraid. Lead balloons and all...

And no, I'm not a mason.



posted on Jan, 12 2014 @ 07:36 AM
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In the case of NASA and the German NAZI scientists, the issue of Masons was a huge deal. Hitler was against the Masons, along with the Catholic Church and Most of Europe over the sedition issues of European Masons. imho

This is why Mason Allan Dulles was in charge of the NAZIs and the issues for ardent NAZI was of concern in the US, because ardent NAZIs killed Masons for sedition.

So, the Masons had to get the former NAZIs of NASA to buy into the JFK hit and that was done via their former Commander Walter Dornberger and the Paines in Dallas. imho


So, history matters and this is the history:

Source:

Hitler and Mason Sedition


Citations:




During the war, Freemasonry was banned by edict in all countries that were either allied with the Nazis or under Nazi control, including Norway and France. Anti-Masonic exhibitions were held in many occupied countries. Field-Marshal Friedrich Paulus was denounced as a "High-grade Freemason" when he surrendered to the Soviet Union in 1943.[13]

The preserved records of the RSHA—i.e., Reichssicherheitshauptamt or the Office of the High Command of Security Service, which pursued the racial objectives of the SS through the Race and Resettlement Office—document the persecution of Freemasons.[10] The number of Freemasons from Nazi occupied countries who were killed is not accurately known, but it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons were murdered under the Nazi regime.[14]

------------

A number of governments have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections. After the founding of modern speculative Masonry in England in 1717, several Protestant states restricted Masonic lodges: Holland banned the lodge in 1735; Sweden and Geneva, in 1738; Zurich, in 1740; and Berne, in 1745. Catholic Spain, Portugal, and Italy attempted to suppress Freemasonry after 1738. Bavaria followed in 1784; Austria, in 1795; Baden, in 1813; Russia, in 1822;[1] Pakistan, in 1972.[2]








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