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In combination with other information gathered by the radar during the same scan (dual polarization products and phase shifting due to the Doppler effect), meteorologists can distinguish between hail, rain, snow, biologicals (birds, insects), and other atmospheric phenomena.
Chemical analysis and modelling, of the magma coming up in the Holuhraun eruption, indicates that the magma is
coming up from a depth of more than 10 km.
The Bárðarbunga caldera is about 70 square kilometres, up to 10 kilometres wide and about 700 metres deep. The surrounding edges rise up to 1850 metres but the base is on average close to 1100 metres. The volcano is covered in ice, hiding the glacier-filled crater.