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Seismologist Kristín Jónsdóttir at the Icelandic Met Office told ruv.is that the depression is so deep that it appears through the icecap. It’s breaking the glacier’s edge. The earth itself is sinking, not the glacier.
“It’s a deformation event we’ve been observing since August 16, the [tectonic] plates are moving apart. Then we see a depression appear. Þingvellir is an example of a depression—naturally a very big depression,” Kristín stated.
“It means that the [volcanic] fissure could extend to the south and stretch below the glacier. If magma surfaces below the glacier, there’s a risk of flooding, ash production and explosions,” she added.
Geologists working near the blowout lava eruption north of Vatnajokull have been called back, as increased volcanic tremor has been detected in the vicinity. GPS measurements show that 'the magma intrusion has increased since the Beginning of the current eruption and a Rift Valley has is formed.
Current Time: Sep 3, 2014 at 6:58:38 PM
Sunrise Today: 6:16 AM↑ 71° East
Sunset Today: 8:37 PM↑ 289° West
Moonrise Today: 5:23 PM↑ 138° Southeast
Moonset Today: 11:42 PM↑ 223° Southwest
Daylight Hours: 14 hours, 21 minutes (-6m 29s)
The eruptive activity at the Holorhaun fissure has remained stable, but ongoing deformation, although slower now, continues to worry scientists monitoring the events.
The output of lava has been estimated to be around 150 cubic meters per second, and the lca flows continue to expand mainly to the ENE, towards the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river. The surface of land covered by the lava flows was reached 7.2 km2.
However, GPS and radar measurements indicate that more lava is being intruded into the dyke at depth than what is erupted at the surface. It is feared that new fissures open, or that the existing one might become longer, and possibly open under the ice cap. In that case, significant ash plumes and floods would be generated as magma would react violently with ice and water.
Important changes seem to be under way. The fissure eruption with its spectacular lava emission at the surface still continues, but has decreased a lot since the first two days.
At the same time, earthquake and deformation activity that had decreased yesterday have picked up again. This is likely because the internal pressure is no longer efficiently released and intruding magma no longer erupted at the same rate as added underground.
The scenario of a new eruption along new fissures, possibly under the ice, or even at Bárdarbunga or Asjka volcanoes, is considered a possible scenario.
Small explosions were reported to have occurred in an area north of the glacier, but it is unclear what they were caused by. A possibility includes phreatic (purely steam-driven) or phreatomagmatic (magma directly in contact with water) explosions as magma (or surface lava flows) meets and heats up wet sediments.
As lava from the ongoing Holuhraun eruption continues to flow towards the nearby glacial river Jökulsá á Fjöllum, Iceland's second largest river from Vatnajökull, and only approx. 6 km away yesterday, the interaction of lava flows with the river water will likely generate powerful steam explosions that can release dangerous gases.
The lava which have arisen from the eruption of lava in the hole has become nine square kilometers and would therefore cover all Grafarvogur - from Gullinbru and over Korpúlstaðaveg. Detention appears that it might leak out in Jokulsa soon.
Dyke at a depth of less than scientists have ever seen and it is more likely the eruption under a glacier, says Björn Oddsson, a geologist with Almannvarnardeild. He says that the hazard will be reviewed if the failure to explain the turmoil in today or if he declines.
First high resolution satellite imagery of the Holuhraun fissure, seen in NASA ALI imagery. Below are Red, Green and Blue composites of the different ALI channels. These are 30 m resolution data in the Shorty Wave Infrared. Note from the RGB composite of channels 7, 6 and 5 that the south-west portion of the fissure shows up with the strongest return signals. As this is at shorter wavelengths, then this part of the fissure is likely the most thermal active at the time of the overpass.
Commissioner of Húsavík has decided in light of unrest in the eruption site today to block all further traffic into the area north of Vatnajökull. Media and researchers have so far had limited access to the site, subject to certain conditions.
According to a notice from the Department on civil defense. It says that while these uncertainties are not considered appropriate to allow others into the area and also have installed the internal closure of the road at 910 Vaðöldu.
Calculations ies show that more magma flows into the corridor and finds out from him in the eruption lava cracks in the blowout. It creates pressure and scientists worry that the Fissure could extend up to the glacier.
Has slowed gosóróa the blowout Lava last hour, according to the Meteorological Institute. The turmoil that started in the afternoon today, is still present. Lara Ómarsdóttir who flew over the area today, says a lot of cracks in the ground and some parts are extensively fall on the ground.
Volcanic tremor near the Holuhraun eruption has decreased in the last two hours, according to the Icelandic Met Office. An evacuation was ordered earlier today, after a sharp increase in the tremor, leading to fears that a subglacial eruption was imminent.
Since the appropriate Icelandic authorities have today publicly mentioned the possibility of a large, acidic and explosive eruption at Bardarbunga, we now feel free to inform you that this possibility has been discussed by the Dragons, behind closed doors, for well over a week. The key information comes from this official IMO graphic:
The first premise is that earthquakes do not occur in molten rock. Nor do they form a clearly visible ring shape such as the above except under one circumstance – they do so around a body of liquid, in this case magma. A conservative estimate places the size of this body of magma at 8 km diameter, height unknown but most likely on the order of 3 – 6 km, depth also unknown but relatively shallow. Using simple geometry, 4 x Pi x r^3 / 3 yields a volume of ~250 cubic kilometres for a sphere, but for our flattened body something on the order of 125 – 140 cu km.
The important question is not how much magma there is but rather how much of this magma is eruptible. The answer must be “not that large a fraction” as otherwise, Bardarbunga would most likely already have exploded. At this stage a guess would be no more than perhaps 10% or some 10 – 15 km^3.