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I think I've made my point. $2.6 billion was lost because airspace over Europe was shut down for 3 days. The motto "Never Again!!" prompted eco-terrorism tests and will in future "OKAY" flights through volcanic ash. There's really not much more to it than that.
really? and since when is the OP the authority beyond all appeal and dispute here?
or you for that matter?
the op is [re]setting the goalposts and defining the terms.
that's not how it works, except for religious fanatics of course.
and no, you did not think gaul, you lapped up unquestioning.
This dangerous test was not about the safety of planes and passengers. During the eruption of E., airspace was closed. The ash was determined to be the kind that will sandpaper a windshield and melt and coat the inside of an engine. Nobody crashed. No one was endangered. Because the air space containing this fine ash was closed.
reply to post by luxordelphi
Could you please explain what horrible affects this test has done and how you came to that conclusion?
I am not interested in the financial aspects, but more of the detrimental affects to the eco-system.
When a volcano erupts it throws out a lot of ash. At short notice this ash can be very harmful to the environment, but on the long term the ash layer, which contains many useful minerals will be converted to a very fertile soil. The main good effect that volcanoes have on the environment is to provide nutrients to the surrounding soil. Volcanic ash contains minerals that are beneficial to plants, and if it is very fine ash it is able to break down quickly and get mixed into the soil.
I guess the main good effect that volcanoes have on the environment is to provide nutrients to the surrounding soil. Volcanic ash often contains minerals that are beneficial to plants, and if it is very fine ash it is able to break down quickly and get mixed into the soil.
Perhaps the best place to look for more information about this would be to look up references about some of the countries where lots of people live in close proximity to volcanoes and make use of the rich soils on volcanic flanks. These would include Indonesia, The Philippines, Japan, Italy, etc.
Silica sand is one of the most common varieties of sand found in the world. It is used for a wide range of applications, and can be purchased from various suppliers throughout the world. Silica sand is used in industrial processing, to make glass, as fill, and to create molds and castings.
The research shows that volcanoes don’t always play by the rule book, says Andronico.
The most detailed visual study yet of volcanic ash from last year’s Icelandic eruption reveals just how sharp, abrasive and potentially dangerous the particles were.
Stipp and her colleagues dunked the ash particles in water, as might happen in a flood, and watched as tiny bits of salt washed away.
The researchers kept washing the ash, but even after being stirred around in water for two weeks it kept its sharp edges, Stipp says. “The particles remain extremely sharp even after they’ve been grinding against each other.”
Ash that was produced right after Eyjafjallajökull exploded on April 14 was more abrasive than the sample collected 12 days later, and was also smaller and more powdery, the team found. Many of the explosive ash bits glommed onto larger particles — suggesting that scientists may have underestimated the fraction made of particles less than 10 micrometers across, a limit often used to mark a breathing hazard.
Another upcoming study supports the idea that Eyjafjallajökull’s ash clumps together. In a paper to appear in Geology, Jacopo Taddeucci of Italy’s National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology and colleagues describe ash from the final days of the eruption in May 2010. Even then, Eyjafjallajökull was spitting out both sharp, dense fragments and more fragile, irregularly shaped ones, says team member Daniele Andronico, also at the Italian institute.
Ash sometimes clumped together in aggregates, the team found. On hitting the ground, these aggregates broke apart into a cloud of smaller particles, dropping more particles than expected.
The types of minerals present in volcanic ash are dependent on the chemistry of the magma from which it was erupted. Considering that the most abundant elements found in magma are silica (SiO2) and oxygen, the various types of magma (and therefore ash) produced during volcanic eruptions are most commonly explained in terms of their silica content. Low energy eruptions of basalt produce a characteristically dark coloured ash containing ~45 - 55% silica that is generally rich in iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg). The most explosive rhyolite eruptions produce a felsic ash that is high in silica (>69%) while other types of ash with an intermediate composition (e.g., andesite or dacite) have a silica content between 55-69%.
Rice husk ash (RHA) is a good alternative source for the production of zeolite since it contains more than 95% silica. The content of silica and carbon in rice husk were varied depending on combustion temperature, thus varies the properties of zeolite produced...