originally posted by: 112233
I disagree on your assessment of Saturnalia being Christmas.
Unlike several Roman religious festivals which were particular to cult sites in the city, the prolonged seasonal celebration of Saturnalia at home could be held anywhere in the Empire. Saturnalia continued as a secular celebration long after it was removed from the official calendar. As William Warde Fowler noted, Saturnalia "has left its traces and found its parallels in great numbers of medieval and modern customs, occurring about the time of the winter solstice."
A number of scholars, including historian David Stephens from the University of Central Florida and Professor Parker-Ducharme from Tulane University, view aspects of the Saturnalia festival as the origin of some later Christmas customs, particularly the practice of gift giving, which was suppressed by the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.
During the ancient Roman Saturnalia, human-shaped delicacies[dubious – discuss] were consumed and jovial singing[clarification needed] was performed in the streets, which makes it a "precursor of modern gingerbread man" and caroling. The ancient Roman Saturnalia was integrated into Christianity in the 4th century, as a means to mass convert the pagan Roman citizens.[unreliable source?] Due to its pagan origin, the Christmas festival was banned in Massachusetts between 1659 and 1681 by the Puritans as an illegal observance. Certain religious groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses do not observe Christmas for the same or similar reasons. Source
Saturnalia may have been responsible for the pageantry of our midwinter festival, but it's Mithraism [www.uvm.edu/~classics/life/holiday.html] that seems to have inspired certain symbolic religious elements of Christmas. Mithraism arose in the Mediterranean world at the same time as Christianity, either imported from Iran, as Franz Cumont believed, or as a new religion which borrowed the name Mithras from the Persians, as the Congress of Mithraic Studies suggested in 1971.
The comparison of Mithraists and Christians is not coincidental. December 25 was Mithras' birthday (or festival [Survivals of Roman Religions p. 150]) before it was Jesus'. The Online Mithraic Faith Newsletter [no longer available] says:
"Since earliest history, the Sun has been celebrated with rituals by many cultures when it began it's journey into dominance after it's apparent weakness during winter. The origin of these rites, Mithrasists believe, is this proclamation at the dawn of human history by Mithras commanding His followers to observe such rites on that day to celebrate the birth of Mithras, the Invincible Sun."
But the actual choice of December 25 for Christmas was thought to have been made under the Emperor Aurelian* because this was the date of the Winter Solstice and was the day devotees of Mithras celebrated the dies natalis solis invicti 'birthday of the invincible sun'. [See Dating Christmas.]
originally posted by: 112233
You seem to only have looked for a source to confirm your belief. So here is mine.
originally posted by: AugustusMasonicus
During the ancient Roman Saturnalia, human-shaped delicacies[dubious – discuss] were consumed and jovial singing[clarification needed] was performed in the streets, which makes it a "precursor of modern gingerbread man" and caroling.
Conversion to Judaism (Hebrew: גיור, giyur) is a formal act undertaken by a non-Jewish person who wishes to be recognized as a full member of a Jewish community. A Jewish conversion is normally a religious act and usually an expression of association with the Jewish people and, sometimes, the Land of Israel. A formal conversion is also sometimes undertaken to remove any doubt as to the Jewishness of a person who wishes to be considered a Jew.
Ger toshav (Hebrew: גר תושב ger "foreigner" + toshav "resident"), is a term used in Judaism to refer to a gentile who is a "resident alien", that is, one who lives in a Jewish state and has certain protections under Jewish law, and is considered a righteous gentile (Hebrew: חסיד אומות העולם chassid umot ha-olam "pious among the nations").
The biblical term "proselyte" is an anglicization of the Koine Greek term προσήλυτος/proselytos, as used in the Greek Old Testament for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the Greek New Testament for a first century convert to Judaism, generally from Ancient Greek religion. It is a translation of the Biblical Hebrew phrase גר תושב/ger toshav. Proselyte also has the more general meaning in English of a new convert to any particular religion or doctrine.
Ger, or Gur (or Gerrer when used as an adjective) is a Hasidic dynasty originating from Ger, the Yiddish name of Góra Kalwaria, a small town in Poland.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (/ˈkwɜrkəs/; Latin "oak tree")
The derivation of the word "cur" dates from the 13th century. It is thought to be short for the Middle English "curdogge", which derives from the word "curren", meaning "to growl". According to the Dictionary of True Etymologies the original root of the word may be Germanic, possibly from the Old Norse "kurra" meaning "to grumble". If so, the word may be onomatopoeic.
гэр (transliterated: ger) - in Mongolian simply means "home"
Geist (German pronunciation: [ˈɡaɪst]) is a German word. Depending on context it can be translated as the English words mind, spirit, or ghost, covering the semantic field of these three English nouns.
A Feist (or Fyce) is a type of small hunting dog, developed via crossbreeding of various other hunting breeds in the rural southern United States.
Quercus REXX/Personal and REXXLIB by Quercus Systems 1995-2003
Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is an interpreted programming language developed at IBM by Mike Cowlishaw. It is a structured, high-level programming language designed for ease of learning and reading.
Jabba the Hutt exemplifies lust, greed, and gluttony. The character is known throughout the Star Wars universe as a "vile gangster" who amuses himself by torturing and humiliating his subjects and enemies. He surrounds himself with scantily-clad slave girls of all species, chaining many of them to his dais.
The word dais was first used in the thirteenth century. The word comes from the Anglo-French deis, meaning "table" or "platform" and from the Greek diskos, meaning "disk" or "dish".
Senna covesii (Desert Senna, Coues' Senna, Rattleweed, "rattlebox", "dais" or "Cove Senna") is a perennial subshrub in the family Fabaceae, native to the Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert
Cinna was a cognomen that distinguished a patrician branch of the gens Cornelia, particularly in the late Roman Republic.
(English: Cinna or the clemency of Caesar Augustus) is a tragedy by Pierre Corneille written for the Théâtre du Marais in 1639. It takes place in ancient Rome, but the ideas and themes characterize the age of Louis XIV, most notably the establishment of royal power over the nobility.
A Publisher? More like a Public 'Sher', or a Pub Lis Her.
Urdu poetry (Urdu: اُردُو شاعرى Urdū S̱ẖāʿirī) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different forms. Its basically an outcome of superimposition of Persian language poetry on Khari Boli with Sanskrit as its substratum.
Its fundamentally a performative poetry and its recital, sometimes impromptu, is held in Mushairas (poetic expositions). Although its tarannum saaz (singing aspect) has undergone major changes in recent decades, its popularity among the masses remains unaltered. Mushairas are today held in metropolitan areas worldwide because of cultural influence of South Asian diaspora. Ghazal singing and Qawwali are also important expository forms of Urdu poetry. Bollywood movies have a major part in popularising Urdu poetry with younger generations.
Sher, a Baloch tribe in Pakistan
Sher Agha (disambiguation), Afghan people known as Sher Agha
Sher Shah Suri (1486–1545), king of the Sur Empire in India
Sher Shah (disambiguation)
The Lion and Sun (Persian: شیر و خورشید, Šir o Xoršid) is one of the main emblems of Iran, and between 1846 and 1980 was an element in Iran's national flag. The motif, which illustrates ancient and modern Iranian traditions, became a popular symbol in Iran in the 12th century. The lion and sun symbol is based largely on astronomical and astrological configurations: the ancient sign of the sun in the house of Leo, which itself is traced backed to Babylonian astrology and Near Eastern traditions.
The motif has many historical meanings. First, it was only an astrological and zodiacal symbol. Under Safavid and the first Qajar kings, it became more associated with Shia Islam.
2 lamb - verb
of a sheep : to give birth to a lamb
"The ewes will lamb soon."
The fruits resemble large plums and take 4 to 6 months to ripen.
O'Shea and Whelan was an Irish family practice of stonemasons and sculptors from Ballyhooly in County Cork. They were notable for their involvement in Ruskinian gothic architecture in the mid-19th century.
A smaller and more lightly constructed version of the one-horse shay is called a chair or whiskey because it can "whisk" around other carriages and pass them quickly. Another version of the whiskey, known as a whisky, is constructed exceptionally light in weight for the purpose of allowing it to be drawn by small ponies or light horses.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. memorialized the shay in his satirical poem   "The Deacon's Masterpiece or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay". A fictional Deacon crafted this wonderful one-hoss shay in such a logical way that it could not break down. The shay was constructed from the very best of materials so that each part was as strong as every other part. In Holmes' humorous, yet "logical", twist, the shay endures for a hundred years (amazingly to the precise moment of the 100th anniversary of the Lisbon Earthquake shock) then it "went to pieces all at once, and nothing first, — just as bubbles do when they burst." It was built in such a "logical way" that it ran for exactly one hundred years to the day.
A steeplechase is a distance horse race in which competitors are required to jump diverse fence and ditch obstacles.
The name is derived from early races in which orientation of the course was by reference to a church steeple
Shay, Egyptian tea
Shai (also spelt Sai, occasionally Shay, and in Greek, Psais) was the deification of the concept of fate in Egyptian mythology. As a concept, with no particular reason for associating one gender over another, Shai was sometimes considered female, rather than the more usual understanding of being male, in which circumstance Shai was referred to as Shait (simply the feminine form of the name). His name reflects his function, as it means (that which is) ordained.
Because of the power associated in the concept, Akhenaten, in introducing monotheism, said that Shai was an attribute of Aten, whereas Ramses II claimed to be lord of Shai (i.e. lord of fate).
During Ptolemaic Egypt, Shai, as god of fate, was identified with the Greek god Agathodaemon, who was the god of fortune telling. Thus, since Agathodaemon was considered to be a serpent, and the word Shai was also the Egyptian word for pig, in the Hellenic period, Shai was sometimes depicted as a serpent-headed pig, known to Egyptologists as the Shai animal.
In ancient Greek religion, Agathos Daimon or Agathodaemon (Greek: ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, "noble spirit") was a daemon or presiding spirit of the vineyards and grainfields and a personal companion spirit,   similar to the Roman genius, ensuring good luck, health, and wisdom.
(Pausanias conjectured that the name was a mere epithet of Zeus), he was prominent in Greek folk religion; it was customary to drink or pour out a few drops of unmixed wine to honor him in every symposium or formal banquet. In Aristophanes' Peace, when War has trapped Peace (Εἰρήνη Eirene) in a deep pit, Hermes comes to give aid: "Now, oh Greeks! is the moment when, freed of quarrels and fighting, we should rescue sweet Eirene and draw her out of this pit... This is the moment to drain a cup in honor of the Agathos Daimon."
Heterodon is a genus of harmless colubrid snakes endemic to North America. They are stout with upturned snouts and are perhaps best known for their characteristic threat displays. Three species are currently recognized. Members of the genus are commonly known as hog-nosed snakes, North American hog-nosed snakes, and sometimes puff adders (though they should not be confused with the venomous African vipers of the genus Bitis).
In ancient Roman religion, the genius was the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing.
The Shay is a multi-use sports stadium in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, near Shaw Hill.
In France during the 15th century, witch hunting is at its peak. The Inquisition is everywhere. Lara, a sixteen-year-old girl, is sentenced to death. Before she dies she curses her executioners and swears to return to punish them.
In Amerika, New Eden during the 21st century, the goddess Sha strikes inexorably. Her hand takes revenge to all of them who are involved with the death of Lara.
The Shahnameh (pronounced [ʃɒːhnɒːˈme]) or Shahnama (Persian: شاهنامه Šāhnāmeh, "The Book of Kings") is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Tajikistan and the Persian-speaking world. Consisting of some 50,000 verses, the Shahnameh tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian empire from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century. Today Iran, Afghanistan and the greater region influenced by the Persian culture (such as Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, and Dagestan) celebrate this national epic.
The work is of central importance in Persian culture, regarded as a literary masterpiece, and definitive of ethno-national cultural identity of modern-day Iran and Afghanistan. It is also important to the contemporary adherents of Zoroastrianism, in that it traces the historical links between the beginnings of the religion with the death of the last Sassanid ruler of Persia during the Muslim conquest and an end to the Zoroastrian influence in Iran.
copse (kɒps) also coppice
a thicket of small trees or bushes; a small wood.
C minor has been associated with heroic struggle since Beethoven's time. Beethoven wrote some of his most characteristic works in the key of C minor, including the Symphony No. 5 and no fewer than three piano sonatas. (See Beethoven and C minor.)
In the compositions of Ludwig van Beethoven, C minor is commonly regarded as a special key: works for which he chose this key are felt to be powerful and emotionally stormy.
The key is said to represent for Beethoven a "stormy, heroic tonality"; he uses it for "works of unusual intensity"; and it is "reserved for his most dramatic music."
Careening a sailing vessel is the practice of beaching it at high tide. This practice is also known as to "heaving down".
A related practice was a Parliamentary heel, in which the vessel was heeled over in deep water by shifting weight, such as ballast or guns, to one side.
In sailing, heaving to (to heave to and to be hove to) is a way of slowing a sail boat's forward progress, as well as fixing the helm and sail positions so that the boat does not actively have to be steered. It is commonly used for a "break"; this may be to wait for the tide before proceeding, to wait out a strong or contrary wind. For a solo or shorthanded sailor it can provide time to go below deck, to attend to issues elsewhere on the boat, or for example to take a lunch break.
Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts. The teenage Beethoven was almost certainly influenced by these changes. He may also have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati.
The pre-migration term reported by Tacitus is framea, who identifies it as "hasta"; The native term for "javelin, spear" was Old High German gêr, Old English gâr, Old Norse geirr, apparently from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz. The names Gaiseric, Radagaisus indicate Gothic gaisu besides gairu.
Latin gaesum, gaesus Greek γαῖσον was the term for the lance of the Gauls. Avestan has gaêçu "lance bearer" as a likely cognate. The Celtic word is found e.g. in the name of the Gaesatae. Old Irish has gae "spear". Proto-Germanic *gaizaz would derive from PIE *ghaisos, although loan from Celtic has also been considered, in which case the PIE form would be *gaisos. Pokorny has *g'haisos (with a palatal velar aspirate), discounting the Avestan form in favour of (tentatively) comparing Sanskrit hḗṣas- "projectile".
The etymon of English spear, from Germanic *speri (Old English spere, Old Frisian sper, Old High German sper, Old Norse spjör), in origin also denoted a throwing spear or lance (hasta).
The term survives into Modern German as Ger or Gehr (Grimm 1854) with a generalized meaning of "gusset" besides "spear". In contemporary German, the word is used exclusively in antiquated or poetic context, and a feminine Gehre is used in the sense of "gusset".
Old Saxon thrumi "point of a spear".
Gar "spear" is also the name of ᚸ, a rune of the late Anglo-Saxon futhorc. It is not attested epigraphically, and first appears in 11th-century manuscript tradition. Phonetically, gar represents the /g/ sound. It is a modification of the plain gyfu rune ᚷ.
Old English gâr means "spear", but the name of the rune likely echoes the rune names ger, ear, ior: due to palatalization in Old English, the original g rune (gyfu) could express either /j/ or /g/ (see yogh). The ger unambiguously expressed /j/, and the newly introduced gar rune had the purpose of unambiguously expressing /g/.
Gar is the 33rd and final rune in the row as given in Cotton Domitian A.ix.
Gyfu is the name for the g-rune ᚷ in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning "gift" or "generosity":
Jera (also Jeran, Jeraz is the conventional name of the j-rune ᛃ of the Elder Futhark, from a reconstructed Common Germanic stem *jē2ra- meaning "harvest, (good) year".
The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet is Gothic 𐌾, named jēr, also expressing /j/.
The reconstructed Common Germanic name *jē2ran is the origin of English year (Old English ġēar). In contrast to the modern word, it had a meaning of "season" and specifically "harvest", and hence "plenty, prosperity".
The Germanic word is cognate with Greek ὧρος (horos) "year" (and ὥρα (hora) "season", whence hour), Slavonic jarŭ "spring" and with the -or- in Latin hornus "of this year" (from *ho-jōrinus), as well as Avestan yāre "year", all from a PIE stem *yer-o-.
Sênggêzangbo (Tibetan: Tibetan: སེང་གེ་ཁ་འབབ་, named after Sênggê Zangbo, a river in Ngari), or Shiquanhe (Chinese: 狮泉河镇, i.e. "Lion Spring River Town") is a town in Tibet. It is the main town of Ngari Prefecture, and of the Gar County of that prefecture.
Historically the town was also known as Ger. This name, in the form Gar (simplified Chinese: 噶尔; traditional Chinese: 噶爾; pinyin: Ga'er), is now used to refer to the entire county; however, as the custom with Chinese county seats is, Gar is often used to refer to the county seat as well, and it may be labeled that way on maps.
Being the main town of Ngari Prefecture (which is known in Chinese under the Sinicized form of its name, Ali Prefecture), the town is also commonly known in English as Ali (Chinese: 阿里; pinyin: Ālǐ) Town; this is what many guidebooks use as the primary name for the town.
Jere language, a dialect cluster of Kainji languages in Nigeria
Yer (ъ), or hard sign, a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet
Much of Jeremiah's prophetic preaching is based on the theme of the covenant between God and Israel (God would protect the people in return for their exclusive worship of him): Jeremiah insists that the covenant is conditional, and can be broken by Israel's apostasy (worship of gods other than Yahweh, the god of Israel). The people, says Jeremiah, are like an unfaithful wife and rebellious children: their infidelity and rebelliousness makes judgement inevitable. Interspersed with this are references to repentance and renewal, although it is unclear whether Jeremiah thought that repentance could ward off judgement or whether it would have to follow judgement. The theme of restoration is strongest in chapter 31:32, which looks to a future in which a new covenant made with Israel and Judah, one which will not be broken. This is the theme of the "new covenant" passage at chapter 31:31–34, drawing on Israel's past relationship with God through the covenant at Sinai to foresee a new future in which Israel will be obedient to God.
The understanding of the early Christians that Jesus represented a "new covenant" (see 1 Corinthians 11:25 and Hebrews 8:6–13) is based on Jeremiah 31:31–34, in which a future Israel will repent and give God the obedience he demands. The Gospel's portrayal of Jesus as a persecuted prophet owes a great deal to the account of Jeremiah's sufferings in chapters 37–44, as well as to the "Songs of the Suffering Servant" in Isaiah.
Pub Lis Her
Laboratory information system, databases oriented towards medical laboratories.
Laser Isotope Separation, a means of producing enriched uranium from uranium ore
Italian Sign Language or LIS (Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual language employed by deaf people in Italy
Life settlements (or Life Insurance Settlement), a financial product for people with unwanted life insurance policies
Lost in Space is an American science fiction television series created and produced by Irwin Allen, filmed by 20th Century Fox Television, and broadcast on CBS. The show ran for three seasons, with 83 episodes airing between September 15, 1965, and March 6, 1968. The first television season was filmed in black and white, but the remainder were filmed in color. In 1998, a Lost in Space movie, based on the television series, was released.
The Swiss Family Robinson (German: Der Schweizerische Robinson) is a novel by Johann David Wyss, first published in 1812, about a Swiss family shipwrecked in the East Indies en route to Port Jackson, Australia.
Robinson Crusoe /ˌrɒbɪnsən ˈkruːsoʊ/ is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719. This first edition credited the work's fictional protagonist Robinson Crusoe as its author, leading many readers to believe he was a real person and the book a travelogue of true incidents. Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is a fictional autobiography of the title character (whose birth name is Robinson Kreutznaer)—a castaway who spends years on a remote tropical island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and mutineers before being rescued.
born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, now most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe.
Lisht or el-Lisht is an Egyptian village located south of Cairo. It is the site of Middle Kingdom royal and elite burials, including two pyramids built by Amenemhat I and Senusret I. The two main pyramids were surrounded by smaller pyramids of members of the royal family, and many mastaba tombs of high officials and their family members. The site is also known for the tomb of Senebtisi, found undisturbed and from which a set of jewelry has been recovered. The coffins in the tomb of Sesenebnef present the earliest versions of the Book of the Dead.
In 1960, the Lish family moved to Burlingame, California, where they founded the avant-garde literary magazine Genesis West, which ran between 1961 and 1965. Genesis West was published in seven volumes by The Chrysalis West Foundation. While working on Genesis West, their house and magazine became a focus point, and celebrated such authors as Neal Cassady, Ken Kesey, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Gilbert, and Herbert Gold. Although Lish is not ranked among the Merry Pranksters, he often hosted Kesey and Cassady in his home.
In a sunny field of flowers, Thumbelina meets a tiny flower-fairy prince just her size and to her liking, and they wed. She receives a pair of wings to accompany her husband on his travels from flower to flower, and a new name, Maia.
The Robot was performed by Bob May in a prop costume built by Bob Stewart.
Lis (Polish for "Fox") is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by many noble families of Clan Lis.
The shortened version of the girl's name Elizabeth (given name)
The shortened version of the girl's name Lisa
Lis (linear algebra library)
an implementation of STREAMS for Linux
LIS programming language
Local information systems
Li Zheng's son Li Lizhen (理利贞) escaped with his mother to the ruins of Yihou (伊侯之墟), where they survived by eating plums. In gratitude Li Lizhen changed his surname to 李, a character that means plum and is a homophone of 理.
The first historical person known to have the surname is Li Er (李耳), better known as Laozi (fl. 6th century BC), the philosopher who founded Taoism.
1.One who lies down; one who rests or remains, as in concealment.
1. the upper chamber of the heart; atrium
2. pinna - the external part of the ear
originally posted by: NewWorldDisorder
a reply to: muzzleflash
What a crock, put down the meth pipe and get some sleep buddy.