Help ATS with a contribution via PayPal:
learn more

We need climate-change risk assessment

page: 1
4

log in

join

posted on Oct, 4 2013 @ 04:31 PM
link   


The reality is that we don’t yet know everything there is to know about climate change, and we don’t know its full potential impact.

We need climate-change risk assessment

While most AGW advocates unconsciously mouth the words, "the science is settled," or "there is a consensus,"
we have some of the U.S.'s political leadership admitting that, despite all the hype, we need to look deeper into the cause and effect of global warming, not just fanaticism of imaginary catastrophic Anthropogenic Global Warming.

Given that the U.S, and others have blatantly tried to influence AR5




posted on Oct, 4 2013 @ 04:38 PM
link   
Here's the full paragraph from your source.

The reality is that we don’t yet know everything there is to know about climate change, and we don’t know its full potential impact. That’s exactly why we need to assess the risks. What will changes in temperature and precipitation mean for farmers and livestock producers? How will higher sea levels affect the value of coastal property? What might stronger and more frequent storms mean for the infrastructure that is the bedrock of our national economy?
www.washingtonpost.com...

The article is about gaining a better understanding of the impacts of climate change. It is not expressing any doubt that it is happening. The article makes no mention of its cause because as far as risk assessment goes, the cause is irrelevant.
edit on 10/4/2013 by Phage because: (no reason given)



posted on Oct, 4 2013 @ 05:16 PM
link   

jdub297
Given that the U.S, and others have blatantly tried to influence AR5


In what way? If you are going to levy an accusation, at least provide some semblance of what you allege.



posted on Oct, 4 2013 @ 05:20 PM
link   
Unless you actually know what the risks are, how can you assess them.

Sure you can summise what the risks are, but unless you know for certain what the risks are, there is no way on Earth you can assess what measures are required to reduce said risks.

This is once again another knee jerk reaction to something we simply do not know enough about.

To date, all the actualities have not come anywhere near the predictions. This is scaremongering at its greatest, but hey, there's money in them there scaremongering tactics!!
edit on 4/10/13 by Cobaltic1978 because: (no reason given)



posted on Oct, 4 2013 @ 08:25 PM
link   
Decoy = Climate Change!



posted on Oct, 5 2013 @ 12:29 PM
link   
reply to post by Cobaltic1978
 


that makes no sense. we have a pretty good idea of what can and likely will happen as the climate changes. a risk assessment is just giving a heads up of what the possibilities are. it's like trying to figure out what might happen if a cat 5 hurricane hits a certain area that it hasn't hit before. we can still assess the possible damage and prepare for it in case it does happen.

r



posted on Oct, 5 2013 @ 01:57 PM
link   

pasiphae
reply to post by Cobaltic1978
 


that makes no sense. we have a pretty good idea of what can and likely will happen as the climate changes. a risk assessment is just giving a heads up of what the possibilities are. it's like trying to figure out what might happen if a cat 5 hurricane hits a certain area that it hasn't hit before. we can still assess the possible damage and prepare for it in case it does happen.

r


Assess the possible damage of course, but spending Billions of pounds on defences/measures that may never be used doesn't. If we acted upon the predictions that were given regarding Global warming and the impact it was going to have (i.e rising sea levels, flooding, drought et al), which some doom merchants predicted would happen much quicker than it actually is, then we would have been spending Billions on White Elephants all over the globe.

You believe the hype if you want to, I certainly don't.



posted on Oct, 5 2013 @ 02:24 PM
link   
This was written by the ultra-liberal Bloomberg and as such, should be considered left-wing propaganda, which it is.

He is stating that we need to assess risks from climate change yet we can't attribute any single weather event directly to climate change.

What's he is basically saying is that people around the Mississippi River should figure out flood damage and people in Florida should look at hurricane damage.

This should and has been done already. I regardless of Climate Change. This is nothing more than an attempt to throw the climate change issue out there in a sort of underhanded way. What he is proposing should be done even if there were no such thing as global warming.



posted on Oct, 7 2013 @ 07:00 AM
link   
The climate is ALWAYS changing so that is nothing new.

The IPCC mandate states:


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to assess the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of human induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for mitigation and adaptation.
www.ipcc-wg2.gov...


BEFORE a single report was written it was taken as given that humans were to blame and a harmless gas necessary for not only photosynthesis but for regulating breathing and the pH of blood would be demonized!

Statements that put 'Climate Change' in a very clear light.

World Bank Carbon Finance Report for 2007



The carbon economy is the fastest growing industry globally with US$84 billion of carbon trading conducted in 2007, doubling to $116 billion in 2008, and expected to reach over $200 billion by 2012 and over $2,000 billion by 2020

Yet absolutely nothing of actual use is produced by the carbon trading except fatter bank accounts for the financiers and increased poverty and death for the poor and middle class.

This same World Bank has increased its lending for COAL plants in China, India and the rest of the third world! GRAPH: World Bank Funded COAL PLANTS


This is a fraud that produces nothing but poverty. It does not produce a single penny of wealth just diverts the wealth of the poor and the middle class into the pockets of the rich. You can see that by looking at what has happened while the elite's prpaganda outlets, the MSM has been hyping CAGW:
International Monetary Fund - World Economy: Convergence, Interdependence, and Divergence Finance & Development, September 2012

....Within many countries the dramatic divergence between the top 1 percent and the rest is a new reality. The increased share of the top 1 percent is clear in the United States and in some English-speaking countries and, to a lesser degree, in China and India....

This new divergence in income distribution may not always imply greater national inequality in all parts of a national distribution. It does, however, represent a concentration of income and, through income, of potential political influence at the very top, which may spur ever greater concentration of income. The factors—technological, fiscal, financial, and political—that led to this dynamic are still at work. ...And the euro area crisis and its accompanying austerity policies will likely lead to further inequality in Europe as budget constraints curtail social expenditures while the mobility of capital...


The financiers are a bit more blunt. Smart Meters, an attractive opportunity for Investors Theoretically smart meters allows residential electricity to be turned off so the system can be balanced as wind and solar power surges and declines. Smart Meters are a national application of The Broken Window Fallacy


“...climate change negotiations are not just about the global environment but global economics as well — the way that technology, costs and growth are to be distributed and shared. ... Can we balance the need for a sustainable planet with the need to provide billions with decent living standards? Can we do that without questioning radically the Western way of life? These may be complex questions, but they demand answers.” ~ Pascal Lamy Director-General of the World Trade Organization

“The data doesn’t matter. We’re not basing our recommendations on the data. We’re basing them on the climate models.” ~ Prof. Chris Folland, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research

“The models are convenient fictions that provide something very useful.” ~ Dr David Frame, climate modeler, Oxford University

“The only way to get our society to truly change is to frighten people with the possibility of a catastrophe.” ~ Daniel Botkin emeritus professor Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara.



posted on Oct, 7 2013 @ 08:39 AM
link   
reply to post by jdub297
 





The reality is that we don’t yet know everything there is to know about climate change, and we don’t know its full potential impact.


The elite lie to manipulate us and use the MSM to spread their lies. That is a given if you have bothered to look into who OWNS the printing press.

So what does science that is not agenda driven (funded by the elite) tell us about climate?

1. The climate is complex there is not just one control knob that effects climate but an interaction among many factors.

2. UN - IPCC modeling fails because climate is 'Chaotic' (see #1)

3. The climate exhibits two Strange Attractors according to a physicist at Duke University.

In other words the climate bounces around a warm phase and then enough things change to make it bounce around a cold phase. We are currently in the warm phase despite the fact that thanks to the Milankovitch Cycles the solar energy received by the earth has dropped by a whopping 9% You can see the large change in solar energy and how stable the Holocene climate has been in THIS GRAPH of the temperatures from the Greenland and Vostok Ice cores compared to the Northern Hemisphere Summer Energy. This is a drop of ~ 40 watts/meter^2 since the Holocene Optimum.

From a Peer-reviewed paper:

Temperature and precipitation history of the Arctic

Solar energy reached a summer maximum (9% higher than at present) ca 11 ka ago and has been decreasing since then, primarily in response to the precession of the equinoxes. The extra energy elevated early Holocene summer temperatures throughout the Arctic 1-3° C above 20th century averages, enough to completely melt many small glaciers throughout the Arctic, although the Greenland Ice Sheet was only slightly smaller than at present... As summer solar energy decreased in the second half of the Holocene, glaciers reestablished or advanced, sea ice expanded, and the flow of warm Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean diminished. Late Holocene cooling reached its nadir during the Little Ice Age (about 1250-1850 AD), [lowest point -cv] when sun-blocking volcanic eruptions and perhaps other causes added to the orbital cooling, allowing most Arctic glaciers to reach their maximum Holocene extent...


Another more recent paper show Norway Glacial activity is the highest in the past 1,000 year. (Translation glaciers are growing)




ABSTRACT:
We explore the possibility of building a continuous glacier reconstruction by analyzing the integrated sedimentary response of a large (440 km2) glacierized catchment in western Norway... A multi-proxy numerical analysis demonstrates that it is possible to distinguish a glacier component in the ~8000-yr-long record, based on distinct changes in grain size, geochemistry, and magnetic composition... This signal is interpreted to reflect glacier activity in the upstream catchment, an interpretation that is independently tested through a mineral magnetic provenance analysis of catchment samples.

Minimum glacier input is indicated between 6700-5700 cal yr BP, probably reflecting a situation when most glaciers in the catchment had melted away, whereas the highest glacier activity [most glacier growth - cv] is observed around 600 and 200 cal yr BP. ....




This is the stuff completely left out of the MSM and we are seeing other information they down play: Last December, snow cover in the northern hemisphere was at the highest level since record keeping began in 1966. The UK experienced the coldest March of the last fifty years and there was snow in the UK on Easter. More worrying the oldest temperature record in England (CET) is showing a temperature drop of 1.5degC in the winter season (December to February inclusive) since 2000. This March northeastern Germany is the coldest in 130 years, and could be the coldest since records began. In northern Germany, the winter that broke all records for its lack of sunshine — with just 91.2 hours of sunshine, total, from the beginning of December to the end of February.....

Long story short the real debate is if/when we are headed into an ice age and how violently the weather will oscillate. The change from ice age to the present warm period happened in THREE YEARS! Locally scientists have found there have been changes of up to 16C within a short time span.

In his book, The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future Richard Alley, one of the world's leading climate researchers, tells the fascinating history of global climate changes as revealed by reading the annual rings of ice from cores drilled in Greenland. In the 1990s he and his colleagues made headlines with the discovery that the last ice age came to an abrupt end over a period of only three years.... www.amazon.com...

Richard B. Alley was chair of the Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences that produced the report “Abrupt Climate Change – Inevitable Surprises” (In other words Alley is in the pay of the global elite so you have to read between the lines a bit.)

Another Geologist says "... what is really true about climate is that there are some amazing unknowns, such as what can rocket global temps up +20C, +16C and +8-+10C in dramatically short times. Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations and terminations are the many 800 pound gorillas in the climate change room. And we do not yet know what causes them. ...."

Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations only occur during glaciation and move the climate from the cold phase to the warm phase on a temporary basis.

Dansgaard-Oeschger events: tipping points in the climate system




Dansgaard-Oeschger events are a prominent mode of variability in the records of the last glacial cycle. ... no agreement has emerged on which may be the more correct for describing the paleoclimatic signal...we assess the bimodality of the system reconstructing the topology of the multi--dimensional attractor over which the climate system evolves... We find that the statistics are consistent with the switches between two different climate equilibrium states in response to a changing external forcing... We find that the statistics are consistent with the switches between two different climate equilibrium states in response to a changing external forcing...


A much subdued D/O occurs during the Holocene and is called Bond Events.



posted on Oct, 7 2013 @ 10:00 AM
link   
reply to post by jdub297
 


OK with my above reply we can now look at Climate Change Risk Assessment.

What do we know?

1. The Global Elite derailed climate research in their very successful bid to extract more money from the middle class and poor.

2. Despite the use of funding to direct research in the direction needed to support the Elite's Wealth Diversion Scheme, advances have been made so we now know the climate is responsive to many many factors and we have a partial list of those factors.

3. The Climate has two modes Warm and Cold. We are presently in the warm mode and solar insolation, the source of almost all energy on earth, has declined 9%.

4. Five of the last six interglacials have each lasted at half a precession cycle. The precession cycle itself is between 19,000 and 23,000 years. The Holocene is close to the 23kyr point, making 11,715 years about half.

5. We are at the possible end of the Holocene and solar insolation WILL NOT increase for thousands of years.

6. A major increase in temperature can therefore be ruled out.

So where should the debate and scientific emphasis be if we were not dealing with the Power Hungry elite in charge of the purse strings.

There is, and has been, a long-running debate in the paleoclimatology literature that few have ever heard of. Wallace Broecker, one of the fathers of modern paleoclimatology provides some of the best early information on this debate: The End of the Present Interglacial:How and When?



This behavior is consistent with the prediction by Kukla and Matthews (1972) that the Holocene interglacial will terminate suddenly with a jump to another of the climate system's modes of operation. This is what happened at the end of the last period of peak interglaciation.



Again from peer-reviewed papers:

Lesson from the past: present insolation minimum holds potential for glacial inception (2007)



Because the intensities of the 397 ka BP and present insolation minima are very similar, we conclude that under natural boundary conditions the present insolation minimum holds the potential to terminate the Holocene interglacial. Our findings support the Ruddiman hypothesis [Ruddiman, W., 2003. The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era began thousands of years ago. Climate Change 61, 261–293], which proposes that early anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission prevented the inception of a glacial that would otherwise already have started....


Abrupt Temperature Changes in the Western Mediterranean over the Past 250,000 Years



Predictable orbital variations led to insolation changes, which triggered less frequent but very intense oscillations. Accordingly, the last glacial inception (substage 5d) has been attributed to a connection between orbital forcing and thermohaline circulation beyond a freshwater threshold within the ocean-atmosphere-sea-ice system...


A new paper from last fall, is the real OH NO! The key phrase is "...Thus, glacial inception occurred ~3 kyr before the onset of significant bipolar-seesaw variability..." translated that means the melting of the Arctic ice and the increase in Antarctic ice comes 3,000 yrs AFTER the transition. The paper is - Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?

The paper goes on to say



Comparison [of the Holocene] with MIS 19c, a close astronomical analogue characterized by an equally weak summer insolation minimum (474Wm−2) and a smaller overall decrease from maximum summer solstice insolation values, suggests that glacial inception is possible despite the subdued insolation forcing, if CO2 concentrations were 240±5 ppmv (Tzedakis et al., 2012)





....the June 21 insolation minimum at 65N during MIS 11 is only 489 W/m2, much less pronounced than the present minimum of 474 W/m2. In addition, current insolation values are not predicted to return to the high values of late MIS 11 for another 65 kyr. We propose that this effectively precludes a ‘double precession-cycle’ interglacial [e.g., Raymo, 1997] in the Holocene without human influence....
web.pdx.edu... (NOTE: pdf has been removed from internet)


From a climate model Transient simulation of the last glacial inception. Part II: sensitivity and feedback analysis




Abstract
The sensitivity of the last glacial-inception (around 115 kyr BP, 115,000 years before present) to different feedback mechanisms has been analysed by using the Earth system model of intermediate complexity...

In our model, glacial inception, as a bifurcation in the climate system, appears in nearly all sensitivity runs including a run with constant atmospheric CO2 concentration of 280 ppmv, a typical interglacial value, and simulations with prescribed present-day sea-surface temperatures or vegetation cover—although the rate of the growth of ice-sheets growth is smaller than in the case of the fully interactive model. Only if we run the fully interactive model with constant present-day insolation and apply present-day CO2 forcing does no glacial inception appear at all. This implies that, within our model, the orbital forcing alone is sufficient to trigger the interglacial–glacial transition, while vegetation, ocean and atmospheric CO2 concentration only provide additional, although important, positive feedbacks. In addition, we found that possible reorganisations of the thermohaline circulation influence the distribution of inland ice....


The dangers from another interglacial are far greater than of global warming and many papers say a higher level of CO2 is all that is keeping the earth from a plunge into glaciation.



posted on Oct, 7 2013 @ 12:28 PM
link   
reply to post by jdub297
 


For those like me interested in reading scientific papers there are two rather off-beat lines of investigation that are showing up.

One is a lunar connection to the climate.
The influence of the lunar nodal cycle on Arctic climate



Abstract
The Arctic Ocean is a substantial energy sink for the northern hemisphere. Fluctuations...

A lunar nodal cycle in all time-series indicates that there is a forced Arctic oscillating system controlled by the pull of gravity from the moon, a system that influences long-term fluctuations in the extent of Arctic ice. The phase relation between the identified cycles indicates a possible chain of events from lunar nodal gravity cycles, to long-term tides, polar motions, Arctic ice extent, the NAO winter index, weather, and climate.





Climate Dynamics

Coupled oscillators:
In this analysis we may understand the forced gravitation oscillation between the earth, sun and the moon as a forced coupled oscillation system to the earth. The tide and the earth rotation responds as a non-linear coupled oscillation to the forced gravity periods from the moon and the sun. This is a complex oscillation in periods between hours and thousands of years...


[Includes a listing of several more papers at bottom of article]


Another paper is Long-Term Lunar Atmospheric Tides in the Southern Hemisphere. Ian Wilson, a co-author describes In English: What are the main results of this paper? on his blog.
.....

Another little known but intriguing area of research is Drake Passage.
A bit of background (You can look it up) The earth went from tropical to ice box because of the movement of the continents. Two crucial moves were the closing of the Isthmus of Panama, link and the opening of Drake Passage link

Drake Passage formed when South America separated from Antarctica. The critical points from the above link are:

1. "...formation of Drake Passage are widely believed to have influenced Cenozoic cooling because these events enabled the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)"

2. This "...wind-driven current facilitates interocean exchange of seawater, contributes to upwelling-induced productivity in the Southern Ocean, and is speculated to have reduced poleward heat transport to Antarctica...'


The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flows around Antarctica. The ACC is wind driven and varies with the strength of the wind. Because Drake passage is a constriction increasing and decreasing eddy activity occurs depending on the wind. This eddy activity shoots cold water up the sides of South America and effects ENSO (El Nino) and the currents in the Atlantic.

A lecture on the connection between wind and ocean circulation. A must read for anyone trying to understand earth's climate.

Processes controlling upper-ocean heat content in Drake Passage SEP 2013


ABSTRACT ...Results suggest that interannual variations in surface heat fluxes explain ∼5 to 10% of the variance in upper-ocean heat content. Anomalous surface heat fluxes are linked to meridional wind anomalies upstream of Drake Passage, which in turn are linked to forcing by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). ENSO and SAM are correlated with upper-ocean heat content at near-zero lags, and statistically significant correlations occur at longer time lags as well. The impact of mesoscale eddies and meanders on upper-ocean heat content is explored with the use of a tracked eddy database. An empirical relationship is constructed relating upper-ocean heat content anomalies to eddy length scales and amplitudes. Eddies and meanders are estimated to account for more than one third of the nonannual cycle variance in Drake Passage upper-ocean heat content.

Effect of Drake Passage on the global thermohaline circulation

Here is a paper on the effects in the Atlantic ocean.


Abstract
The Ekman divergence around Antarctica raises a large amount of deep water to the ocean’ surface. The regional Ekman transport moves the up-welled deep water northward out of the circumpolar zone. The divergence and northward surface drift combine, in effect, to remove deep water from the interior of the ocean. This wind-driven removal process is facilitated by a unique dynamic constraint operating in the latitude band containing Drake Passage. Through a simple model sensitivity experiment WC show that the upwelling and removal of deep water in the circumpolar belt may be quantitatively related to the formation of new deep water in the northern North Atlantic. These results show that stronger winds in the south can induct more deep water formation in the north and more deep outflow through the South Atlantic. The fact that winds in the southern hemisphere might influence the formation of deep water in the North Atlantic brings into question long-standing notions about the forces that drive the ocean’ thermohaline s circulation.





Where things get really interesting and the reason I point out Drakes passage is because Antarctic sea ice has reached record levels. One person estimates at the current growth rate of Antarctic sea ice Drake Passage maybe closed by ice in a decade. Since the current is wind driven and an ocean covered in ice is not as subject to wind what happens?

Drake Passage Effect Without the Drake Passage


NOTE: Most recent scientific papers have the 'CO2 causes Climate Change get out of jail (Peer-review) free card' attached. Sometimes the attachment is so obviously an after thought it is hilarious although very necessary for receiving funding and publication.



posted on Oct, 7 2013 @ 01:17 PM
link   
reply to post by bozzchem
 


Politicians have to go over the Summary for Policy Makers line by line and AGREE. Therefore the work of scientists goes through political sausage-making before the report is finalized.

10 Things To Know About The IPCC Climate Panel by The Associated Press



SO WHAT EXACTLY IS THE IPCC DOING IN STOCKHOLM?

Delegates from member countries are meeting behind closed doors with authors of the physical science report to hammer out the summary for policy-makers. They are going through a draft line by line, which can be a frustratingly slow process because the text needs to be approved by consensus. Governments may have problems with the text being either too complex or too vague, or they may have non-scientific concerns about grammar or word choice. Commenting on a June draft, the U.S. wanted it to read more like a narrative. Underscoring the politics involved, China wanted to remove national borders from a world map used in the draft to "avoid unnecessary disputes."




Key climate report to be released after marathon debate



A key scientific report on climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is to be officially launched here Friday, after four days of debate.

The agreement was reached by over 120 countries' delegates... started from April 30 in Bangkok, at the last minute with the last- day meeting ended at over 4 a.m. Friday (2100 GMT Thursday)....


THIS REPORT IS POLITICAL and always has been.

The IPCC mandate:


...The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to assess the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of human induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for mitigation and adaptation....
www.ipcc-wg2.gov...


Pascal Lamy, Director -General of the World Trade Organization outlines 'The Cause' made famous by the Climategate e-mails.

...climate change negotiations are not just about the global environment but global economics as well — the way that technology, costs and growth are to be distributed and shared....

Can we balance the need for a sustainable planet with the need to provide billions with decent living standards? Can we do that without questioning radically the Western way of life? ....

How to provide global leadership? Mobilizing collective purpose is more difficult when we no longer face one common enemy, but thousands of complex problems.

The Cold War was about the clash, not just of geopolitical interests, but of big ideas... But the Cold War "glue" has disappeared....


The reality is that, so far, we have largely failed to articulate a clear and compelling vision of why a new global order matters — and where the world should be headed....

All had lived through the chaos of the 1930s — when turning inwards led to economic depression, nationalism and war. All, including the defeated powers, agreed that the road to peace lay with building a new international order — and an approach to international relations that questioned the Westphalian, sacrosanct principle of sovereignty [TRANSLATION: Get rid of the US Constitution supremacy over United Nation bureaucratic rules. All nations to become vassal states.]— rooted in freedom, openness, prosperity and interdependence....
www.theglobalist.com...


CAGW was never about climate it was always about politics. "... a clear and compelling vision of why a new global order matters — and where the world should be headed...." and we have UN Agenda 21 and the UN Millennium Summit as the road maps to One World Slavery.


In a nutshell CAGW is all about getting the sheeple to agree to a new feudal system where no one can own property, no sheeple can have a small business, no one can be a nonconformist and the multinational corporations are now the New Aristocracy.

Even the US military now redefines patriotism as extremism. Judicial Watch Obtains Defense Department Teaching Documents

D. Extremist Ideologies
1. Introduction
• As noted, an ideology is a set of political beliefs about the nature of people and society. People who are committed to an ideology seek not only to persuade but to recruit others to their belief. In U.S. history, there are many examples of extremist ideologies and movements. The colonists who sought to free themselves from British rule and the Confederate states who sought to secede from the Northern states are just two examples.....

2. Ideologies
a. Nationalism – The policy of asserting that the interests of one’s own nation are separate from the interests of other nations or the common interest of all nations....

d. Anarchism – A political ideology that considers the state to be unnecessary, harmful, or undesirable. ....They act the part of stereotypical anarchists as envisioned by most Americans outside of far-left circles: black-clad protesters wreaking havoc at political conventions and anti-globalization rallies....


Of course the US Congress recently fixed that by essentially making protests illegal. "Anti-Occupy" law ends American's right to protest






top topics



 
4

log in

join


Help ATS Recover with your Donation.
read more: Help ATS Recover With Your Contribution