posted on Sep, 22 2013 @ 02:38 PM
Not sure how well this thread will be received as it promises to be dry but It goes into the idea of state craft and rule of law In one of the largest
empire in Africa known as medieval Mali.
However knowledge is to be shared and ignorance denied.
This document was as important for that region of Africa as the Magna Carta for Western Europe and from at about the same-time,the Kouroukan Fouga
however was formally in oral tradition and then codified in about 1236 the same time of the Magna Carta in 1215, most people would have recognized
the Magna Carta as having a great impact on the eventual idea that Man is a free being with formal representation in governing counsel , that idea
would take centuries to realize off- course and many found it as a precursor to the US constitution and the parliamentary system in Britain, In the
Malian empire a similar document was being put into place.
The Kouroukan Fouga or Kurukan Fuga is purported to be the constitution of the Mali Empire (mid-thirteenth century to c. 1645), created after
the Battle of Krina by an assembly of notables to create a government for the newly established empire. It was first alluded to in print in Djibril
Tamsir Niane's book, Soundjata, ou la Epoupée Mandingue. Subsequently versions of it were published in Mandinka and translated by Youssouf Cissé
into French in 1991, and finally, a version of compiled in 1998 by a group of traditional historians as well as modern linguists.
According to these texts, the Kouroukan Fouga established the federation of Mandinka clans under one government, outlined how it would operate and
established the laws by which the people would live. Mansa (Emperor) Sundiata Keita presented the document at a plain near the town of Ka-ba (present
day Kangaba), and it has survived through oral tradition passed down by generations of djeli or griots. The djeli have preserved much of the history
of the Mali Empire including its kings, battles and system of government.
The Kouroukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans (lineages) that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. There were
16 clans known as the Djon-Tan-Nor-Woro (quiver carriers) responsible for leading and defending the empire. There were also 4 clans known as the
Mori-Kanda-Lolou (guardians of the faith) that guided the ruling clans in matters of Islamic law. There were 4 nyamakala clans (people of caste) who
had the monopoly on certain trades, which included but was not limited to smelting, woodworking, and tanners. Lastly, there were 4 clans of djeli
(masters of speech) who recorded the history of the empire through song. Combined these would make up the 29 seat Gbara at the plain of Kouroukan
Fougan (named after the event where Sundiata "divided the world"). The 30th seat was likely occupied by the mansa's djeli called the belen-tigui
(master of ceremonies), or may have been reserved for a female monitor since the constitution states women are to be represented at all levels of
government (edict 16).
In it there is even procedure of environmental management.
Preservation of Nature and how to deal with a defeated enemy
Preservation of Nature
Article 37: Fakombè is nominated chief of hunters.
Article 38: Before setting fire to the bush, don't look down at the ground, raise your head in the direction of the top of the trees to see whether
they bear fruits or flowers.
Article 39: Domestic animals should be tied during cultivation and freed after the harvest. The dog, the cat, the duck and the poultry are not bound
by the measure.
Article 40: Respect kinship, marriage and the neighbourhood.
Article 41: You can kill the enemy, but not humiliate him.
Article 42: In big assemblies, be satisfied with your lawful representatives.
Article 43: Balla Fassèkè Kouyaté is nominated chief of ceremonies and main mediator in Manden. He is allowed to joke with all groups, in priority
with the royal family.
Article 44: All those who will transgress these rules will be punished. Everyone is bound to make effective their implementation
Klik for more read and enjoy..
edit on 22-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)