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One puzzling feature is that the entropy of a black hole scales with its area rather than with its volume, since entropy is normally an extensive quantity that scales linearly with the volume of the system. This odd property led Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind to propose the holographic principle, which suggests that anything that happens in a volume of spacetime can be described by data on the boundary of that volume.[120]
Black Hole - Event Horizon
The Planck length is the square root of the Planck area, which is the area by which a spherical black hole increases when the black hole swallows one bit of information. The proof is relatively simple and was first set out by Jacob Bekenstein.[3]
Planck Length - Physical Significance
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized," referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization".[1] This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete values.
Quantum
Oh, I was answering your question about the smallest increment of time, and I think that would be when the cycles per second have reached the speed of light... since time is a construct of our minds, this is entirely legitimate, in my opinion
amsterdamn87
Sorry this isn't necessarily related to your post but from what I've read, it seems like your a teacher, a student, or you like the field of physics, the only reason ask is because I'm trying to get into this field as well but am at a crosswords as to what type of physics, I would like to learn. I did read your post and after half way through I was lost, but I think I do grasp the concept. From what I understand it seems to work itself out, but I'm def not educated on the matter.
LQG differs from string theory in that it is formulated in 3 and 4 dimensions and without supersymmetry or Kaluza–Klein theory extra dimensions, while the latter requires both to be true. There is no experimental evidence to date that supports string theory's predictions of supersymmetry and Kaluza–Klein theory extra dimensions. In a 2003 paper A dialog on quantum gravity,[74] Carlo Rovelli regards the fact LQG is formulated in 4 dimensions and without supersymmetry as a strength of the theory as it represents the most parsimonious explanation, consistent with current experimental results, over its rival string/M-theory. Peter Woit in Not Even Wrong and Lee Smolin in The Trouble with Physics also regards string/M-theory to be in conflict with current known experimental results.
Loop Quantum Gravity - Gravitons, string theory, super symmetry, extra dimensions in lqg
So when we measure the speed of a spacecraft exiting the Earth's atmosphere we say it's travelling at a certain speed, relative to our position on Earth. But we also know the Earth moving. The true velocity of the craft is not what we measure it to be from our frame of reference, it's only true from our frame of reference. But what is the velocity of Earth relative to? It can't be relative to the speed of light, because light behaves according to the theory of special relativity. If we can't even detect the end of the universe how can we even define what "truly stationary" even means?
ManFromEurope
reply to post by ChaoticOrder
Sure, that thing isn't "stationary", but we have sufficiently measured its parameters.
The CMB photons travel at the speed of light, that's true.
ChaoticOrder
The CMB radiation consists of electromagnetic radiation (photons) which travel at the speed of light, so it is indeed not stationary. Like I said in the opening post, how is it logical to use photons as a reference point when they behave according to the rules of special relativity? Maybe I'm just missing something about special relativity, but I cannot see how the CMB helps us to solve this problem in a satisfying manner.
We are moving toward the blue shift and moving away from the red shift, and the amount of the shift can even tell us the velocity.
The Earth's motion through space causes a spatial red/blue shift of the CMBR.
We are moving toward the blue shift and moving away from the red shift, and the amount of the shift can even tell us the velocity.
Korg Trinity
If you haven't already, you should ready this thread...
Finally an answer to EVERYTHING - Quantum Field Gravity - BRAIDS
Not a search for the smallest scale particle but will eventually discover that all matter is made of space time and there is nothing in the universe other than this raw material.
Same principle. In the case of blue shifted galaxies, we are moving toward them (or they toward us, depending on your reference frame), and in the case of red shifted galaxies, they are moving away from us (or we are moving away from them, depending on your reference frame).
ChaoticOrder
reply to post by Korg Trinity
Not a search for the smallest scale particle but will eventually discover that all matter is made of space time and there is nothing in the universe other than this raw material.
I agree, but personally I'm starting to move away from the braid theory. I believe that loop quantum gravity is correct in the general claim that all matter is made of space-time, but I'm not convinced that it forms in the types of braids that we typically see theorized by loop quantum gravity physicists. I think the way space is quantized is something even more fundamental than braids. In my mind it seems like you could have a virtually unlimited number of braid configurations, even very simple braids could be configured in many different ways. But we don't seem to observe that type of extreme particle diversity in the real world. There seems to be a rather small set of fundamental particles which can be used to construct every other type of particle.
So there's something very strange going on there, and I think it really gets down to the fact of what space-time actually is. Is it just a projection from a holographic surface, is it some type of 2D surface or membrane which produces the illusion of 3D space, or is space actually 3-dimentional, or perhaps there are even more dimensions that we can't see? Until we really have a good answer to these questions we will have trouble describing how space is quantized and how it can be manipulated to form a restricted set of fundamental particles. I have thought about this problem a little bit but it's really beyond my ability to work with such complex ideas.
Whilst I understand why you do not like the 'braid' model as you put it and think there are unlimited configurations, there are likely only very limited numbers of ways that these quanta of space can be packed together to be stable.
Tetrahedral non-euclidean geometry was my specialty... it is how spherical harmonics work, for buckyballs as well as hydrogen atoms... you are really on to something here... when you say "is this how atomic oscillations work", they're called "spherical harmonics" and yes, they work almost exactly how you have shown them... bravo, you deserve the nobel for this