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Black Egypt the cover up - compilation video

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posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 08:21 PM
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LUXUS
reply to post by Spider879
 


Now why am I not surprised that you think the original Aztecs were black

And where did I make that claim pls back that up.

Anywayz Iam off this thread..thanx for playing.




posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 08:31 PM
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reply to post by Spider879
 


Except that you avoided the query on percentages or what is sometimes called the quadroon question.

I do note that you keep posting images of dark-skinned people - often cherry picked and out of context -and are now claiming the Sumerians are possibly black too?

For the lurkers

The quadroon question

To Luxus this causes him to go into hysterics, in his world view any drop of black blood is not acceptable - which is why he seems to have invented his own theory of evolution - we hope to see that detailed in the future.

To Spider the quadroon question is one of 'one drop of', ie anyone with 'one drop of' is black. Which he avoided saying to my question but admitted it in these words




In any case both lite-skinned and dark-skinned Egyptians are
the descendants of their darker ancestors and are therefore
authentic even if they only have one drop of ancient Kemitic blood in them


Link to post


So we shall leave these guys in the PC world of today are called euro and afro-centric and who think the world can be nicely and cleanly divided into Black or White to fight on....
edit on 19/9/13 by Hanslune because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 08:32 PM
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Yikes a double post
edit on 19/9/13 by Hanslune because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 08:39 PM
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Nah, wishful thinking.



posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 08:56 PM
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Hanslune
reply to post by Spider879
 


Except that you avoided the query on percentages or what is sometimes called the quadroon question.

I do note that you keep posting images of dark-skinned people - often cherry picked and out of context -and are now claiming the Sumerians are possibly black too?

For the lurkers

The quadroon question

To Luxus this causes him to go into hysterics, in his world view any drop of black blood is not acceptable - which is why he seems to have invented his own theory of evolution - we hope to see that detailed in the future.

To Spider the quadroon question is one of 'one drop of', ie anyone with 'one drop of' is black.

So we shall leave these guys in the PC world of today are called euro and afro-centric and who think the world can be nicely and cleanly divided into Black or White to fight on....


In American social construct it is ex Mariah Carey self Id as such and so does millions of other Blacks. "Black " does not necessarily mean literally Black in this context, in any case my point was and is the original people on the Nile who created the various civilizations there were inner Africans from the Sahara the great lakes and the Horn,later they would be joined by others this is not in dispute by academians today,in no way did I deny gene flow from non Africans but like other civilizations such as Greece and Rome that had significant diverse non Europeans in their mix one still recognize the core population as "White" is anyone out there willing to say that those civilization were mixed and therefore not White or European based ??

Oh almost forgot the Sumerians are the ones who made the claim they were Black,if there is something wrong with the translation of the Lament For Ur or Sargon of Akkad boast that the Black headed people I conquered and rule then a correction need to be made by experts in the field. I stated that they were non Africans and probably of Australoid or South Asian types.


edit on 19-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 10:03 PM
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Spider879


Oh almost forgot the Sumerians are the ones who made the claim they were Black,if there is something wrong with the translation of the Lament For Ur or Sargon of Akkad boast that the Black headed people I conquered and rule then a correction need to be made by experts in the field. I stated that they were non Africans and probably of Australoid or South Asian types.


edit on 19-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)


The Sumerians were Europids, proto Indo-Iranians. The bulk of their remnants are in Europe and even the Turks still speak a branch language.



posted on Sep, 19 2013 @ 11:36 PM
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Spider879


Oh almost forgot the Sumerians are the ones who made the claim they were Black,if there is something wrong with the translation of the Lament For Ur or Sargon of Akkad boast that the Black headed people I conquered and rule then a correction need to be made by experts in the field. I stated that they were non Africans and probably of Australoid or South Asian types.


edit on 19-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)


Sumarians made no such claims your miss quoting again. He meant they had very dark black hair i dont know if your aware of this but not all white people have blond hair and blue eyes. Ever been to Armenia in the caucuses. They are known for there jet black hair and oddly green eyes are also common no blondes though hard to die there hair blond. Same thing when i went to Iraq like 90 percent of Iraqi's have jet black hair.So there black headed odd that put it that way huh unless he meant hair then kinda makes sense.Just thought id get your opinion where you aware they did DNA tests on King Tut? And found King TUT was related to about 70 percent of European males? Meaning they had a common ancestor so im guessing this means 70 percent of Europe's males are black? How would you explain this since europe of course is predominately white? Just curious how far your theory goes.



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 01:13 AM
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dragonridr

Spider879


Oh almost forgot the Sumerians are the ones who made the claim they were Black,if there is something wrong with the translation of the Lament For Ur or Sargon of Akkad boast that the Black headed people I conquered and rule then a correction need to be made by experts in the field. I stated that they were non Africans and probably of Australoid or South Asian types.


edit on 19-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)


Sumarians made no such claims your miss quoting again. He meant they had very dark black hair i dont know if your aware of this but not all white people have blond hair and blue eyes. Ever been to Armenia in the caucuses. They are known for there jet black hair and oddly green eyes are also common no blondes though hard to die there hair blond. Same thing when i went to Iraq like 90 percent of Iraqi's have jet black hair.So there black headed odd that put it that way huh unless he meant hair then kinda makes sense.Just thought id get your opinion where you aware they did DNA tests on King Tut? And found King TUT was related to about 70 percent of European males? Meaning they had a common ancestor so im guessing this means 70 percent of Europe's males are black? How would you explain this since europe of course is predominately white? Just curious how far your theory goes.



I Mis quote nothing did not add a word that wasen't there pls go to all these links they said the same thing the last even had the original Sumerian language in line up with the translation,again if the translation is wrong then academia need to clean that up.
Translation of the - The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk...#
The Lament for Urim
www.bibliotecapleyades.net...
NEW NIPPUR MANUSCRIPTS OF THE UR LAMENT, I
Nili Samet (Bar Ilan University)
and Selim F. Adalı (Bilkent University)

www.academia.edu...

421 iii 9 [May the black-headed people which have been cast away from you, pay homage to you

Nowhere is hair mentioned in any of these text in any case they are usually clean shaven, could they be ancestral to some Europeans?? don't see why not! do they have to be "White" to be or even olive complexion ?? I don't think so..Like I said again these are not African so no need to worry.

"Sigh" the screen shot taken of King Tut's supposed Dna results is not what you think it is this has been covered here on ATS before, I was not a part of that conversation
DNA Tribes - King Tut's DNA Matches With Central Africans
(although NOT exclusively)

www.abovetopsecret.com...
klik here^. in any case Cameroon in west Africa and Chad the (R1b1a) is found massive amount in those lands I don't think I need to post pics of what the average Cameroonian or Chadian looked like.
edit on 20-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 06:22 AM
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OzTiger

Xaphan
The whole black theory has lost all credibility now because black supremacists are always pushing this on their websites. White supremacists also like to say ancient Egyptians were white lol. Whenever you read something like this always check the sources to see if the person supplying this "information" is biased or not.

Also, these people don't look black or white. They look Arab, so my money is on the ancient Egyptians being Arab.



With all the ancients meticulous attention to detail I find it a bit strange that both the people depicted above have right hands on their left arms.
I always believed (perhaps wrongly) that prior to 10,000 years ago we were all "hunter gatherers" and for a period of 240.000 years (immediately after the 'hominid(n)' of our species when we became homo-sapien) we did little or nothing regarding architecture and agriculture and we were all black. Then the Sumerian's came into effect and wrote down some amazing tales of how they came into being. At this stage in time it appears (through pictographs and sculptures) that we were of various shades ranging from black, brown, reddish-brown, yellow(ish) and white(ish) and apparently all living together in the same area. Not only but also we had different shades of hair color too.
Whether we believe the Sumerian Tablets of creation (and their amazing comparison to the book of Genesis) or the DNA evidence of some sort of genetic modification (46 chromosomes from 48 chromosomes some 250,000 years ago and 9 of our chromosomes again modified some 10,000 years ago - again subject to much speculation) the question is why were the lighter skin people so superior intellectually to the black people they later made into slaves?
The Ancient Egyptians are mainly depicted as lighter skinned although in some pictographs they are decidedly black. Some theories suggest that the Pharaoh's were a race of their own - Akenhaten for one seems way different.
Interesting thread and some good reading on many posts.


Further to my previous post - does anyone else not find it strange that the meticulous pictograph makers put left hands on right arms?

Here is yet another:


edit on 20-9-2013 by OzTiger because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 07:29 AM
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Spider879

LUXUS
reply to post by Spider879
 


Now why am I not surprised that you think the original Aztecs were black

And where did I make that claim pls back that up.

Anywayz Iam off this thread..thanx for playing.


No, what exactly have these people got to do with the ancient Aztecs then?



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 02:00 PM
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LUXUS

Spider879

LUXUS
reply to post by Spider879
 


Now why am I not surprised that you think the original Aztecs were black

And where did I make that claim pls back that up.

Anywayz Iam off this thread..thanx for playing.


No, what exactly have these people got to do with the ancient Aztecs then?


Fer chrissakes Mr Spock go back and read the post carefully



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 05:49 PM
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reply to post by Spider879
 


It has nothing to do with the translation it has to do with your understanding of context lets look at this again shall we.




188-191. After the haze had lifted at noon, he made fires blaze. He locked up the day and the rising of the bright sun together with the good storm. In the Land he did not let the bright sun rise; it shone like the evening star. In the delightful night, the time when coolness sets in, he redoubled the south wind.
192-196. The scorching potsherds made the dust glow (?) -- the people groan. He swept the winds over the black-headed people -- the people groan. Sumer was overturned by a snare -- the people groan. It attacked (?) the Land and devoured it completely. Tears cannot influence the bitter storm -- the people groan.


Notice a storm is being described and the wind causes the embers to glow. The other effect is it causes peoples hair to blow strong wind isnt it? So i guess bt your interpretation Sumerians had black heads but the rest of them was a different color? You have to read context of any quote thats like the one every one mis quotes or should i say miss interprets as proof Egyptians are black. Herodotus never said egyptians have black skin and kinky hair. He was speculating the colchians were actually egptians not that egyptians were black.Herodotus believed that the Colchians (southern Black Sea area) were introduced to Asia by Egyptian expansion as far as Thrace and Scythia because "they have black skins and curly hair (not that that amounts to much, as other nations have the same)." [Herodotus, Histories, 167.] They also practiced circumcision, unlike Mediterranean peoples of the time. Colchians lived in the caucus mountains Now Afrocentric scholars have been arguing there were blacks there. But nothing has shown up archaeologically to prove this. But isnt it funny that herodotus is claiming the Egyptians were the ones that created a tribe in the caucuses? You know the one where Caucasians came from? Now there has never been any evidence Egyptians actually made it in to the caucuses but ya know it was his theory.




posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 06:34 PM
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reply to post by dragonridr
 


reply to post by dragonridr
 


Do you realize the significance of your quoted passage.

It is in reference to the series of bolide impacts in and around the persian gulf at roughly 2300 ish bc, that caused the early bronze age collapse.

That being said , this whole conversation makes we want to pull my hair out.
There is so much taken out of context hsd manipulated to bolster a mistaken assumption, on both sides of the argument.
With respect to the Sumerian aspect , there is definite mis representation by both sides.
The references to the "black headed" people come from akkadian sources, the akkadians WERE NOT SUMERIANS, the akkadians were semetic peoples, that subjugated thé multi ethnic people of early Sumer.
The ubadians, the pre Sumer people, were comprised of three distinct people, the semetic pastoralists that hearded sheep and goats at the margins of the desert and lived in black tents, think Bedouins. Then there were the littoral fishing people of the gulf marshes that lived in reed huts who, were the fore runners of the sumerians, that spoke a language isolate. Then there were the agricultural canal buillding people that can be traced back the samarans of the north.
Add to this the elamites who would have been proto indo Iranian and the Gutians, a probable indo European nomadic people who were characterised as being barbarians that were light skinned and fair haired.
The cultural and racial make up of the area was so complex that any discussion of them being "black " or "white" is over simplistic and whithout merit.



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 10:32 PM
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reply to post by punkinworks10
 

Hi Punkinworks got a question was the term Saggiga applied to the Sumerians by the Semitic speaking Akkadians or was it a term they themselves used at this point I am thinking of Sargon's boast The black-headed [people] I ruled, I gov[erned], I leaned on Samuel N Kramer a lot but his work is simply old although many still reference it including myself.
edit on 20-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 20 2013 @ 11:45 PM
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reply to post by punkinworks10
 


Exactly thats the point im trying to make racial diversity was all over the entire Mediterranean and into asia. There were obviously people of a lot of different colors all forming tribes. You can no more say the Egyptians were black then you could say the Indians were black or the Chinese.Problem is Afrocentrism refuses to see that because it has an agenda. This whole argument about what color the Egyptians were is stupid they were there own culture.There skin tone hasnt changed you can see what Egyptians look like black hair and dark skin.You can see by there artwork what they looked like its not a mystery.And theres no conspiracy trying to put down the black man if this developed in Africa it is an African civilization no matter if they were brown black white or blue.Is some black guy living in the United States from Egypt no am i no so what is the point?

See the only thing i have a problem with is Afrocentrism is racist in itself. This isnt about trying to set history straight its about reverse racism. look at this statement and tell me its not racist.



“Things that may not be true can be made if you repeat them long and often enough, therefore, always repeat statements that will give your race a status and an advantage. That is how the White man has built up his system of superiority. He is always telling you he is superior and he has written history and literature to prove it. You must do the same.”

– Marcus Garvey


Funniest part about the whole thing is Afrocentrism is ignoring one of the great civilizations in the world its called Nubia there to busy trying to get back at the white man and want to prove him wrong then look at a culture that needs the attention. Nubians had a language and writing that to this day no one has translated.we have lights of writings from them but guess what we havnt a clue what it says. Nubians built over 200 pyramids they became such a military power they took over lands all the way into the Sinai. Traded with far away places such as Afghanistan.for over a hundred years ruled Egypt. But we know very little about them why you might ask? Well the people that could be doing this research are to busy trying to prove the Egyptians were black or Jesus or the Hebrews. Why try to rewrite history create there own its there i personal have all ways been fascinated with Africa.Did you know in Nigeria they discovered a city called Eredo it had walls around it 100 miles long and up to 70 feet high. This rivals the great wall. But these professors dont want to discover African history this is nothing more then a racist tirade. And speaking of that mine is done sorry its just so sad considering eventually these places will be gone and forgotten.
edit on 9/21/13 by dragonridr because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 21 2013 @ 12:03 AM
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Lots of people repress history for their own gain or shame.

Eg...... How many black authors you see writing about the black kings selling their own people to the US slave traders ?



posted on Sep, 21 2013 @ 12:21 AM
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12 Tribes in the exodus

The 12 tribes came from around the world, and were enslaved by Egypt.

Egypt was the melting pot of its time.

Judah was the largest tribe.

But even still, all the tribes were allowed equal representatives before the kings! Then the kings eventually showed favor towards certain tribes, especially Judah.

During the Babylonian sacking of Jerusalem it says tribes fled in all directions, ships into the sea, to the south into Africa, South East into Yemen, Saudi areas. Those people there today are descendants of these 12 tribes.

Egypt would put a tribe against another tribe to weaken each other if they felt one was getting too strong. Kinda like what is done in modern times.

Look at the stories of the Ark of the Covenant being guarded by the Black Ethiopian and Egyptian Christians. Those people are descendants from that tribe!

All so many Americans are so blind to this knowledge. I see so much "turn it to glass" posts, everywhere and it makes me sick! The land from Tunisia to Tibet is all Holy Land.

Why would someone curse that on someone? It's just like cursing themselves!

This should be where people of the World pilgrimage to for peace and guidance. Not fight over whats beneath the soil!

Its just wrong, everything that went down, the way history is written.

edit on 21-9-2013 by AbleEndangered because: typo: tribes to tribe



posted on Sep, 21 2013 @ 12:22 AM
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Herodotus never said egyptians have black skin and kinky hair. He was speculating the colchians were actually egptians not that egyptians were black.Herodotus believed that the Colchians (southern Black Sea area) were introduced to Asia by Egyptian expansion as far as Thrace and Scythia because "they have black skins and curly hair (not that that amounts to much, as other nations have the same)." [Herodotus, Histories, 167.]
reply to post by dragonridr
 



There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race. Before I heard any mention of the fact from others, I had remarked it myself. After the thought had struck me, I made inquiries on the subject both in Colchis and in Egypt, and I found that the Colchians had a more distinct recollection of the Egyptians, than the Egyptians had of them. Still the Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too. But further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learned the custom of the Egyptians. And the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, as well as their neighbors the Macronians, say that they have recently adopted it from the Colchians. Now these are the only nations who use circumcision, and it is plain that they all imitate herein the Egyptians. With respect to the Ethiopians, indeed, I cannot decide whether they learned the practice of the Egyptians, or the Egyptians of them (it is undoubtedly of very ancient date in Ethiopia). But that the others derived their knowledge of it from Egypt is clear to me, from the fact that the Phoenicians, when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease to follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their children to remain uncircumcised. (Herodotus, The Histories, Book 2:104)
ebooks.adelaide.edu.au...





I will add a further proof to the identity of the Egyptians and the Colchians. These two nations weave their linen in exactly the same way, and this is a way entirely unknown to the rest of the world; they also in their whole mode of life and in their language resemble one another. The Colchian linen is called by the Greeks Sardinian, while that which comes from Egypt is known as Egyptian.


If you noticed he included other cultural traits as well such as circumcision and the manner in which they weave their linen and possible language connection,the Colchians themselves told Herodotus that they were of Egyptian ancestry..could they be mistaken? possibly?? after all the middle kingdom was over a thousand yrs in the past they could have just grafted a pseudo identity on to themselves to explain away why they were different from their neighbors but the connection goes deeper, in the passage he made mention of Sesostris's Army consisting of Ethiopians and Egyptians proper and keep in mind these were the Middle Kingdom dynasties we are taking about here that had deep southern connection one even called himself the son of the first born Nahasu..see Mentuhotep, I am of the opinion in that one or a number of the Amenemhet named kings were the inspiration for Memmon in this I am following Bernal.

But like I said earlier if we discount Herodotus then we have to deal with others who pretty much said the same thing.



Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Greek philosopher, scientist, and tutor to Alexander the Great.
Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises.

"Too black a hue marks the coward as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians and so does also too white a complexion as you may see from women, the complexion of courage is between the two."
(Physiognomics, Vol. VI, 812a)

Aristotle makes reference to the hair form of Egyptians and Ethiopians: "Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because the bodies of living creatures become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair."
(Physiognomics, Book XIV, p. 317)




Lucian (Greek writer, 125 B.C.) is as explicit as that of the previous writers. He introduces two Greeks, Lycinus and Timolaus, who start a conversation:

Lycinus (describing a young Egyptian): "This boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin . . . his hair worn in a plait behind shows that he is not a freeman."

Timolaus: "But that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus, All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood. It is the exact opposite of the custom of our ancestors who thought it seemly for old men to secure their hair with a gold brooch to keep it in place."
(Lucian, Navigations, paras 2-3)


Now off-course as was said many pages back by poster Galvatron that Kemet was already over 3000yrs old and the population could have changed over time..( that is not my position).. but a good counter argument non the least, what is for certain is the Greeks of late Kingdom times and post Kemetian rule viewed them as Black and Brown in color,again the whole thing about the Colchians were the fact that they seemed out of place for the area.

Apart from what Herodotus and other Greek and Romans believed, the question is did 12th dynasty kings deployed their armies into the area,we have no definitive proof of that, but we do have strong circumstantial evidence.


The boxes lids and front end-panels have cartouche containing the names and titles of Amenemhat II of the 12th Dynasty identifying, so the archaeologists assumed, the king by whom the treasure had been deposited, perhaps in his father Senusret I's memory. Here before them, evidently, lay a unique deposit of foreign tribute - hailing from as far way as Afghanistan in the east (source of the lapis lazuli) and the Mediterranean world to the west (apparent origin of the silver vessels
www.ancient-egypt.co.uk...




edit on 21-9-2013 by Spider879 because: (no reason given)



posted on Sep, 21 2013 @ 12:57 AM
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The lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.

I read a lot about Lapis Lazuli in the Bible and Apocrypha.

Thrones of lapis lazuli, Temples of lapis lazuli.



posted on Sep, 21 2013 @ 01:25 AM
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reply to post by dragonridr
 





Funniest part about the whole thing is Afrocentrism is ignoring one of the great civilizations in the would its called Nubia there to busy trying to get back at the white man and want to prove him wrong then look at a culture that needs the attention. Nubians had a language and writing that to this day no one has translated.we have lights of writings from them but guess what we havnt a clue what it says. Nubians built over 200 pyramids they became such a military power they took over lands all the way into the Sinai. Traded with far away places such as Afghanistan.for over a hundred years ruled Egypt. But we know very little about them why you might ask? Well the people that could be doing this research are to busy trying to prove the Egyptians were black or Jesus or the Hebrews. Why try to rewrite history create there own its there i personal have all ways been fascinated with Africa.Did you know in Nigeria they discovered a city called Eredo it had walls around it 100 miles long and up to 70 feet high. This rivals the great wall. But these professors dont want to discover African history this is nothing more then a racist tirade. And speaking of that mine is done sorry its just so sad considering eventually these places will be gone and forgotten.


There is Afrocentrism and there is Afro-eccentrism, the two are not the same, and were you not the one who tried to turn Persian migrants into Saharan and deny that the Kemetians were Africans .

Your words


Now the egyptians origin contrary to this film they were not from africa. Around 5,000 years ago the Sahara area dried out, and part of the indigenous Saharan population retreated East towards the Nile Valley. So what color would they be well same color color they are today really hasnt change there origin would be Persian what is today Iraq.
www.abovetopsecret.com...





There is no evidence that Egyptians were black archaeologists cant find any roots for Egypt anywhere but Syria and middle east


You insisted that influence both Genetic and cultural came into the Nile valley to jump start Egyptian civilization, I provided credible links to the contrary then we got into the thing about the Sumerian with the assumption of what the Sumerians looked like in terms of color you said they were olive complexioned, but I remembered in my reading of Kramer and others that they were viewed as Black..hence the quotes and links to the Lament For Ur.

All I am asking folks to do is to just look around the local ground then adjacent areas first for development and formation of culture before go looking in far off Sumeria and Syria for origins.

One more thing I rarely open a thread on Kemet specifically because other Areas of Africa is being neglected like you said.
Carthaginians Africans??.
www.abovetopsecret.com...
Madagascar inhabited long before Austronesian arrival
www.abovetopsecret.com...
One of the world's oldest breweries reconstructed
www.abovetopsecret.com...
The Kermans aka Kush
www.abovetopsecret.com...
GASSIRE'S LUTE:
www.abovetopsecret.com...
The 600 year old coin that proves China was trading with East Africa BEFORE Europeans arrived
www.abovetopsecret.com...
These are just some of the post that I made concerning Africa and only one discussing ancient breweries was Kemet specific,for other threads on Africa check out my threads by going to my profile,another thing rarely in my threads I started out with such and such were Blacks blah blah blah that is usually started by someone else's comment or assumptions.




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