The Electric Universe theory highlights the importance of electricity throughout the Universe. It is based on the recognition of existing natural electrical phenomena (eg. lightning, St Elmo's Fire), and the known properties of plasmas (ionized "gases") which make up 99.999% of the visible universe, and react strongly to electro-magnetic fields. Much of the material considered by the Electric Universe is peer-reviewed, but not all
The Electric Universe takes a simplifying leap by unifying the nuclear forces, magnetism and gravity as manifestations of a near instantaneous electrostatic force. Instead of being “spooked” by the concept of action-at-a-distance, like most physicists this century, the Electric Universe accepts it as an observational fact. Anyone who has tried to force two like poles of magnets together has demonstrated action-at-a-distance. “Electromagnetic” radiation is then simply the result of an oscillating electrostatic force.
He made important contributions to interplanetary physics, magnetospheric physics, the method for calculating particle orbits, and the modern understanding of comet tails, frozen-in magnetic flux, the magnetosphere (protective plasma covering the earth), plasma dynamics, the solar system, and the nature of the universe. For decades, several of his most important ideas were widely considered bunk, but these theories have gradually been proven by advancing technologies of the 1970s and '80s.
The Big Bang is the scientific theory that is most consistent with observations of the past and present states of the universe, and it is widely accepted within the scientific community. It offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure, and the Hubble diagram.[
Thanks to the pioneering efforts of George Gamow and his collaborators, there now exists a satisfactory theory as to the production of light elements in the early Universe. In the very early Universe the temperature was so great that all matter was fully ionized and dissociated.
Atoms and molecules are electrically neutral in that the number of negatively charged electrons is exactly equal to the number of positively charged protons. Much of the "normal matter" that we find around us is in this form. However, particularly when there are energy sources available, atoms or molecules can gain or lose electrons and acquire a net electrical charge. This process is called ionization.
Perhaps the most conclusive (and certainly among the most carefully examined) piece of evidence for the Big Bang is the existence of an isotropic radiation bath that permeates the entire Universe known as the "cosmic microwave background" (CMB). The word "isotropic" means the same in all directions;
If the universe was once very hot and dense, the photons and baryons would have formed a plasma, ie a gas of ionized matter coupled to the radiation through the constant scattering of photons off ions and electrons.
it takes a very long time (up to several billion years) for the light from the most distant galaxies and quasars to reach us. Not only the light we receive from these objects is redshifted, but we also see these objects as they were during the early stages in the evolution of the Universe. In this sense, the redshift z provides a universal clock and can be used as a measure of time. Observations of distant galaxies is much like a time travel into the past.
For 30 years, based on plasma physics, Alfven and his colleagues proposed an alternative cosmology to both the Steady State and the Big Bang cosmologies. While the Big Bang theory was preferred by most astrophysicists for nearly 30 years, it is being challenged by new observations, especially over the last decade. In particular, the discovery of coherent structures of galaxies hundreds of millions of light years in length and the large-scale streaming of superclusters of galaxies at velocities that may approach 1,000 kilometers per second present problems that are difficult, if not impossible, to reconcile with the Big Bang theory.
Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift
In physics (namely astrophysics), redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object moving away from the observer is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum. In general, whether or not the radiation is within the visible spectrum, "redder" means an increase in wavelength – equivalent to a lower frequency and a lower photon energy, in accordance with, respectively, the wave and quantum theories of light.
The Big Bang theory requires all matter and galaxies to have been created simultaneously 15 billion years ago. But many young galaxies have been observed which must have been created more recently. Moreover, these younger objects, although demonstrably nearby, have large redshifts which cannot be due to recession velocity in an expanding universe. The fundamental assumption in the Big Bang is that extragalactic redshifts are caused only by the velocity of recession. It is shown here how every observational test which can be made on galaxies, and even stars, contradicts the assumption.
Big Bang Theory takes another kick to the groin - Supernova defies
explanation, 'too bright' to fit Standard Model of Supernovas.
Supernova PS1 - 10afx "no existing theoretical model can
satisfactorily explain" and has the luminosity of 100 BILLION Suns,
based on it's 'presumed' location and distance.
Roberto Mantovani, violinist and scientist,born in Parma on March 25, 1854. He was part of an orches-tral team reaching the volcanic Réunion Island in 1878. During his stay on the island, Mantovani had the occasion of observing the huge volcanic fractures on the Indian ocean shore near the town of Saint Denis. He argued that, on a global scale, all the continents might have undergone the same disjunction processes as the volcanic flanks. The global fractures are today the oceans. After several years from his observations, Mantovani published his idea in 1889 in the Bulletin of the Societé des Sciences et des Arts of Saint Denis, where the Italian established his family and became Consul of Italy.
One could say that Alfred Wegener is the father of Plate Tectonic Theory. Wegener noticed that the east coast of South America lined up almost perfectly with the west coast of Africa. This was certainly not a new observation. In 1620, Francis Bacon called attention to the similarities in the continental outlines of eastern South America and western Africa.
added for clerification
His (Mantovani) more famous paper, quoted later by Wegener, was published in 1909, in a popular magazine 'Je m’instruis'. The paper contains the first suggestive mapping of the breakup of the Pangea continent based on geological arguments. The great novelty in the 1909 paper was the mapping of the Pacific view: dotted lines were drown between pairs of geographical points which once were in contact while today are separated by the huge extension of the Pacific basin.
The 1909 Pacific map was forgotten, and only Mantovani’s Pangea representation is reproduced today in some books dealing with the history of science.
He received his MSc in 1934. It was at this time that Carey read the 1924 translation of Wegener's The Origin of Continents and Oceans, the book largely responsible for introducing the concept of continental drift to English-speaking academics. He was to become a key figure in advancing this concept and plate tectonic models that followed.
Despite the eventual acceptance of the plate expansion and subduction paradigm over Carey's hypothesis, he is widely regarded as making substantial contributions to the field of tectonics and considerable influence in the initial acceptance of continental drift over a static model. In 1946, he became the founding professor of geology at the University of Tasmania. He retired from this position 30 years later in 1976.
Inspired by Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift, Hilgenberg worked intensely in the area of the Expanding Earth theory. Hilgenberg had started writing his publication "Vom wachsenden Erdball" ("The Expanding Globe") during Wegener's lifetime. It was meant as a continuation of Wegener’s work. When Wegener died unexpectedly in 1930, Hilgenberg posthumously dedicated "Vom wachsenden Erdball" to him. With four model globes, Hilgenberg was the first to show how all continental shelves would fit neatly together, if the Earth’s diameter were about half the size of today.
Dr. Maxlow's interests in Expansion Tectonics stem from a dissatifaction with plate tectonics in explaining geological phenomena. As part of his PhD research into global tectonics, he created models of an expanding Earth from the present back to the early Archaean Era. This is the first time that both oceanic and continental crusts have been used to reconstruct plate assemblage for the entire 100% of Earth history. Models were then used to layer global geographical, climatic, geophysical and geological data to quantify an Earth expansion process (note: Earth expansion = growing Earth).
The primordial Earth had a diameter about 40% its present size. Up until now about 2/3 of this original number of 2H nuclei have been transformed into bulk matter in two distinct phases: The first from 4000-200 m.y. a., when a granitic continental type crust, with a thickness of 300-350 km, was formed. In the second phase (200 m.y.a. to present), the Fe-rich oceanic crust and more than 90% of the rigid mantle were formed. During orogenic episodes, caused by an intensification of laser clustering, degeneracy pressure is reduced and the Earth tends to contract. The net result of its electrical unbalance is a pulsation of the Earth (expansion-contraction), which is superimposed upon its general expansion due to EM generation and emplacement processes.
Astronomers have recently taken more precise measurements of the Sun’s shape over several years. They found that it was rounder and less variable than they expected from theory.
If gravity and centrifugal force from its rotation were the primary influences on its shape, then the Sun should have a larger equatorial bulge.
It’s shape would be determined by electromagnetic forces, not by gravity and centrifugal force. It’s rotation would also be driven electromagnetically, like an electric motor
Today, physicists labour under misconceptions about the nature of matter and space; the relationship between matter, mass and gravity; the electrical nature of stars and galaxies; and the size, history and age of the universe.
The observed motion of stars simply do not match the required pattern, but they do accord with the universally observed pattern of electromagnetically motivated plasma flows. Galaxies are electrically organized structures. Any other concept is the outcome of mental blindness to the observable facts - or pure illusion.
According to a study published in Nature's Scientific Reports, the universe may be growing in the same way as a giant brain - with the electrical firing between brain cells 'mirrored' by the shape of expanding galaxies.
Now, an international team of astronomers has found that spiral galaxies, like the Milky Way, line up like beads on a string, with their spin axes aligned with the filaments that outline voids.
Tectonic plates probably developed very early in the Earth's 4.6-billion-year history, and they have been drifting about on the surface ever since-like slow-moving bumper cars repeatedly clustering together and then separating.
For an Expansion Tectonic Earth, prior to about 200 million years ago the modern ocean basins did not exist. At that time all continental crust was united to form a single supercontinent called Pangaea, enclosing the entire ancient Earth at about 52% of the present Earth radius. Instead of the modern oceans, a network of relatively shallow seas covered low lying parts of the Pangaean supercontinent. All of the relatively young ocean floor volcanic crusts, as well as much of the ocean waters and atmosphere, were retained within the mantle, where they originated.
Is it possible that the foundational assumptions of the theoretical sciences all express a common misunderstanding? From cosmology, the "queen of the sciences," a core dogma of the 20th century filtered down through every discipline, constraining our ideas about galaxy and star formation and ultimately (from the same underlying assumptions) all of the space sciences, infecting our views of earth history and even our sense of what it means to be human. The core dogma was the idea that gravity alone, seen through the lens of general relativity, rules the cosmos. Dispelling this most common misconception has become the essential requirement for scientific progress, since all of the new evidence makes clear that we live in an Electric Universe.
While suggested historically, since the recognition of plate tectonics in the 1970s, scientific consensus has rejected any significant expansion or contraction of Earth.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study. Consensus implies general agreement, though not necessarily unanimity. Scientific consensus is not by itself a scientific argument, and it is not part of the scientific method. Nevertheless, consensus may be based on both scientific arguments and the scientific method.
There are 3 forms of the expanding earth hypothesis.
1. Earth's mass has remained constant, and thus the gravitational pull at the surface has decreased over time;
2. Earth's mass has grown with the volume in such a way that the surface gravity has remained constant;
3. Earth's gravity at its surface has increased over time, in line with its hypothesized growing mass and volume;
The theory had never developed a plausible and verifiable mechanism of action. During the 1960s, the theory of plate tectonics initially based on the assumption that Earth's size remains constant, and relating the subduction zones to burying of lithosphere at a scale comparable to seafloor spreading, became the accepted explanation in the Earth Sciences.
There are many problem the current (and newer) plate tectonic theory cannot explain including the fact that when you take away the seabed floor piece by piece in reverse order of its age, that all the continents fit together with little or no modification. "Expansion" tectonics is now going through a renaissance with many geologists around the world looking towards expansion tectonics for predicting where new oil fields are located, and where and when earthquakes will happen.
The biggest questions people have are two-fold with expansion tectonics: 1) what is causing the expansion, 2) where did the water come from and why wouldn't the earth be all covered in water 200 million years ago when the planet was smaller.
Plate tectonics tells us that the Earth's rigid outer shell (lithosphere) is broken into a mosaic of oceanic and continental plates which can slide over the plastic aesthenosphere, which is the uppermost layer of the mantle. The plates are in constant motion. Where they interact, along their margins, important geological processes take place, such as the formation of mountain belts, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
The problems posed by vertical tectonic movements are reviewed, including evidence for large areas of submerged continental crust in today’s oceans. It is concluded that the fundamental tenets of plate tectonics might be wrong.
If, in high pressure states, the movement of atoms and molecules is limited, the heat energy content will be low and heat transport slower. Thus temperature and heating capacity are low and the internal energy is in the form of electronic-chemical energy, i.e., free electron movement and/or compression of electron shells within the atoms of the solid
Materials with viscosities of the order of 10^20 poises and higher, can only be treated as a solid
It is only when the electro-chemically stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of atoms (via vibration, and/or rotation, and/or translation) that the heat content increases. Only then, will a solid’s internal energy exist as kinetic energy of its atoms and heat and internal energy can be truly considered equivalent. Conditions inside Earth where its internal energy can exist and be released as kinetic energy of its atoms, are only possible at, or very near to its surface, i.e. at lower pressures.
The ocean floor is far from having the uniform characteristics that convey- or-type spreading would imply (Keith, 1993).
more detailed seismic research has contradicted this simple model. It has shown that the mantle is asymmetrical in relation to the midocean ridges and has a complicated mosaic structure independent of the strike of the ridge.
However, evidence from seismic-velocity, heat-flow, and gravity studies has been building up for several decades, showing that ancient continental shields have very deep roots and that the low-velocity asthenosphere is very thin or absent beneath them (e.g., Jordan, 1975, 1978; MacDonald, 1963; Pollack and Chapman, 1977). Seismic tomography has merely reinforced the message that continental cratons, particularly those of Archean and Early Proterozoic age, are “welded” to the underlying mantle, and that the concept of thin (less than 250 km thick) lithospheric plates moving thousands of kilometers over a global asthenosphere is unrealistic.
If negative buoyancy is responsible for subduction, complete decoupling is necessary between the 100 km thick plate and the underlying mantle. In other words the "ridge push - positive buoyancy" and the "trench pull - negative buoyancy" must exceed the friction between the plate and the upper mantle, as well as the strength of the underlying mantle.
For the decoupling of a world wide ocean layer, of an area of ~5´ 10 14 m^2 (Earth’s surface area) and 100 km thickness, the energy required is of the order of 10^16 W. That is about three orders of magnitude greater than the ~3x10^13 W of Earth’s heat flow. In other words the thermal energy required to overcome internal friction is two to three orders of magnitude greater than the ~3x10^13 W available. If such thermal energies were supplied the temperatures at the core - mantle boundary should be from 120,000 C to 1,200,000 C. At such temperatures the whole mantle would be a convecting liquid melt, or actually would burn. But the estimated temperatures, even by plate tectonics advocates, do not exceed 5,000 C.
Radioactive decay can by no means provide the heat energy required for convection. ... These concentrations are extremely small, and of the order of 80 ppb. In the Moon, the concentration of radioactive elements is more than three times greater. Following that reasoning radioactive decay causes mantle convection, and the Moon should therefore have a vigorously convecting mantle instead of a non-convecting mantle, as we observe.
Finally, primordial heat can not be the energy source either. ... With the present rate of heat loss, that amount can only last for about 2 billion years. This is however a very conservative estimate, ... If the heat energy requirements for convection are between one or two orders of magnitude greater, this primordial energy can only last from 200 to 20 million years!
The viscosity of the asthenosphere, even by plate tectonics advocates, is no more than one order of magnitude lower than that of the overlying material. It is like saying that a vertical nail will eventually penetrate into a piece of wood simply because is 2-3% heavier, let alone that such density inversion is wholly imaginary since all available evidence indicates density increases with depth in our Earth.
Excess Mass (EM) and Transformation of Matter
It is proposed that EM is added concentrically at the core-mantle interface and ascends to the surface through zones of weakness within the mantle.
Case-histories of great earthquakes are then reviewed to highlight the overall analogies. The similarity of the vertical displacements shown by these earthquakes (Chile 1960, Alaska 1964, …) leads to a common interpretation necessitating resort to a prevailing uprising of lithospheric material.
This interpretation is supported by the inspection of the irregularities of the hypocentre distribution along the Wadati-Benioff zones. Moreover, in the case of great South American earthquakes, a volcanic eruptions-earthquakes correlation is clearly recognisable. A thorough revision of the pure elastic rebound model of great earthquakes occurrence and a complete overcoming of the large scale subduction concept is then needed.
The ~1500 km wide and ~5000 km long belts of positive free-air gravity anomalies (in Burchfiel et.al. 1982) imply the presence of EM above Earth’s high seismicity Benioff zones. The strong relationship of volcanoes, earthquakes, and positive gravity anomalies has been noted by prominent scientists. Gutenberg in 1951, writes : " There is a strong correlation between lines of active volcanoes, lines of earthquakes originating at a depth of 80 to 150 km, and positive gravity anomalies (mass surplus within the uppermost 60 to 80 km), as well as a correlation between recently extinct volcanoes and lines of earthquakes originating at depths between 150 and 250 km..."
A large seismic event struck the Chilean coast at 19.10:40 UT on May 22, 1960 (Plafker and Savage, 1970; Cifuentes, 1989; Cifuentes and Silver, 1989). The hypocenter was at 38.05°S – 72.34°W and the focal depth was estimated around 35 km, similar to the Sumatra earthquake. A recent relocation (Krawczyk and the SPOC Team, 2003) provides a more western and slightly deeper hypocenter > 73° 05’ W, 38° 15’ S, H = 38.5 km).
The records suggest that a large slow and silent foreshock took place on the deepest portion of the fault 15 minutes before the main shock, with a seismic moment comparable to that of the main event (Plafker and Savage, 1970; Kanamori and Cipar, 1974; Lund, 1982; Cifuentes, 1989; Cifuentes and Silver, 1989).
In this case, the rupture would have to nucleate in the subcrustal ductile lithosphere where the stress produced by the subducting slab would dissipate.
In the late afternoon of March 27, 1964, the second largest earthquake (but eventually the largest on recent reassessment of magnitude by Okal – seminar at INGV headquarters) ever experienced by mankind struck the gulf of Alaska, with epicentre (61.0°N, 147.7°W) about 150 km east of Anchorage, near College Fiord (Anonymous, 1964). In the map attached to the ﬁrst available report (Anonymous, 1964) a delineation of the uplifted and subsided zones is drawn (Figure 10b).
As in the Sumatra earthquake, in the Alaska seismic event a long belt – at least 500 km – of subsided crust followed an inner zone from near Anchorage to Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island. A subsidence of up to 2.0 m was recorded. An emergence zone with a peak uplift of 8 m was recognized in the external region facing the Paciﬁc. It was probably of the same length as the subsided one.
On September 21 1999, a magnitude Mw=7.6 earthquake (not listed in Table 1) occurred near the town of Chi-Chi, Taiwan (23.85°N, 120.81°E), causing more than 2400 dead. The earthquake was a ‘subduction-related’ crustal event (depth=7.0-10.0 km) (Abrahamson et al., 1999; Shin et al., 1999; Cattin et al., 2004).
The interpretation was judged problematic because, albeit a subduction event, the surface deformation (Lin et al., 2001; Johnson and Segall, 2004) was steeper than the expected sub-horizontal fault in the initial superﬁcial segment of a subducting slab (Seno, 2000; Seno et al., 2000).
The historical Calabrian earthquake sequence of 1783
On 5 February 1783 a seismic sequence occurred in Calabria, southern Italy, along the superﬁcial part of the Sicilian-Calabrian arc and the Wadati-Benioff zone.
I cite this sequence as example of slow propagation of stress along an arc, of documented sparse punctuated episodes of surface masses sliding triggered by earthquakes – which contribute to the spreading of an orogen in geological time –, and of all these occurrence of phenomena just on an orogen in a documented present state of uplifting (e.g. see Calabrian coastal terrace analysis in Valensise and Pantosti, 1992; Cucci, 2004; Cucci and Tertulliani, 2006). Further possibly coseismic uplift occurred during the Calabrian earthquake of 1905 (Sept. 8, lat. 38.67, lon. 16.07, Io=X MCS), as documented by terraces creation along Calabrian Tyrrhenian coasts (Cucci and Tertulliani, 2006).