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Numerous epidemiologic studies provide consistent evidence that cigarette smokers experience a higher incidence of or mortality from cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx than do lifetime nonsmokers. The average risk among persons who currently smoke and have smoked only cigarettes is approximately 10-fold higher in men and 5-fold greater in women compared with lifetime nonsmokers. Incidence and mortality rates increase with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and decrease with years since smoking cessation.
All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, pipes, cigars, snuff, chewing tobacco, betel, and other smoked and smokeless products) increase the occurrence of premalignant lesions and malignant transformations of cells of the tissues of the oral cavity and pharynx, which have the most direct contact with the tobacco, the smoke, or their dissolved constituents.
Eliminating the exposure causes most premalignant lesions to regress and reduces the incidence and recurrence of and mortality from invasive cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. Extensive series of studies have documented genetic changes in the epithelium of smokers, even before the development of malignancy. There are increasing genetic alterations in the sequence from premalignant lesions to malignancy.
Experimental studies in animals cannot precisely replicate human exposures to cigarette smoke, yet the topical application or local injection of tobacco carcinogens induces premalignant leukoplakia in rabbits and oral cavity cancers in hamsters.
Conclusion 1. The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between smoking and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. Implications Cigarette smoking, like other forms of tobacco use, is a major cause of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in the United States and worldwide. Together, smoking and alcohol account for most cases in the United States and elsewhere. Reductions in smoking (cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products) and in the use of smokeless tobacco could prevent most of the approximately 30,200 new cases and 7,800 deaths from these cancers that occur annually in the United States and the much larger burden of these cancers worldwide
Inferences, whether about causality or statistical associations, are always uncertain to a degree. The goal of this report, as in all previous ones, is to explain and communicate scientific judgments as to whether ob - served associations between smoking and disease are likely to be causal, based on the totality of scientific evidence.
Doctors and scientists can’t say for sure what causes each case of oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer.
From 2006-2010, the median age at death for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was 67 years of age
4. Approximately 0.1% died under age 20; 0.7% between 20 and 34; 3.0% between 35 and 44; 13.9% between 45 and 54; 25.1% between 55 and 64; 23.9% between 65 and 74; 21.2% between 75 and 84; and 12.0% 85+ years of age.
Originally posted by deessell
Yes, the war on smoking is an excellent contemporary example of social engineering.
...First they came for the smokers...
Strong biologic evidence supports a mechanism for direct action of tobacco smoke components on the epithelial cells of the cervix. DNA adducts isolated from cervical cells reflect tobacco exposures among smokers. A large body of epidemiologic evidence supports a positive relationship between smoking and cervical cancer.
Smoking has consistently been associated with higher risks of cervical cancer that increase with the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (USDHHS 2001). Similar associations have been observed for premalignant lesions.
Until recently, few studies appropriately considered HPV exposure and infection. HPV is now recognized as a likely contributor to the etiology of most cases and that the risk of smoking is most appropriately assessed in HPV-positive women.
The most recent studies consistently show that smoking is associated with an increased risk among HPV-positive women. The increased risk is of a moderate strength and not likely to be explained by confounding by sexual behavior, as all women were HPV-positive in these analyses.
Dose-response relationships were also demonstrated. Finally, in 2002, IARC concluded that there is now sufficient evidence for a causal association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the uterine cervix (IARC 2002).
Conclusion 1. The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between smoking and cervical cancer. Implication Further study to refine epidemiologic and mechanistic understanding of the independent association between smoking and HPV infection will clarify the causal association between smoking and cervical cancer.
Smokers tend to be more socially precocious, extroverted and risk-taking than their non-smoking peers, Sherman said. "They generally date earlier. They're often popular. The cool kids in school were smokers, and they were dating."
High-risk HPVs cause virtually all cervical cancers. They also cause most anal cancers and some vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers.
Most smokers quit all by themselves, cold turkey, with a 58 % success rate, when they decide it is time to do so. Some as mid-aged adults when they begin to have children and many more in the 60s when smoking is no longer as social a thing as it used to be.
Even though many smokers quit cold turkey without the help of programs or prescriptions, the success rate is only about 5 percent per attempt, which is lower than for assisted quitting methods.
Source: Tobacco Free America
With no program at all, 95% of quitters fail, and only 5% succeed. So it's wise to get help. Get into a program. Consider one -- or more -- of the products and programs below.
The reasons to quit keep piling up, too. According to a 2004 U.S. surgeon general’s report, smoking harms nearly every organ, causing bladder, lung, oral and throat cancers; chronic lung diseases; coronary heart and cardiovascular disease; and cervical, kidney and pancreatic cancer. (The list goes on.) Not to mention, it’s getting harder to find a place where you can smoke.
Smokers, however, acknowledge between puffs that quitting is anything but easy. In 2005, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 45.1 million adult smokers in the U.S., 70% of whom said they wanted to quit. According to the American Cancer Society, only 5% to 10% of smokers are successful on any given attempt. Doctors estimate it takes people five to six tries to end their addictions for good.