the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has belatedly discovered that the most common genetic regulatory sequence in commercial GMOs also encodes a significant fragment of a viral gene (Podevin and du Jardin 2012). This finding has serious ramifications for crop biotechnology and its regulation, but possibly even greater ones for consumers and farmers. This is because there are clear indications that this viral gene (called Gene VI) might not be safe for human consumption. It also may disturb the normal functioning of crops, including their natural pest resistance.
Synopsis: A scientific paper published in late 2012 (Podevin and du Jardin) shows that US and EU GMO regulators have for many years been inadvertently approving transgenic events containing unsuspected viral gene sequences. As a result, 54 different transgenic events commercialized internationally contain a substantial segment of the multifunctional Gene VI from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV)
Determine if OR Fs within P35S show similarity to allergenic proteins. The strategy used to search for similarities with toxic and allergenic proteins is in line with current risk assessment requirements in the European Union.
Multiple allergen databases and search algorithms, described in the EFSA GMO Panel opinion, were used to determine if any of the translated ORFs in the two selected P35S sequences showed similarity to known allergens (Table 1).
None of the searches identified similarities to known allergens.
Determine if OR Fs within P35S show similarity to toxic proteins. The toxin database was obtained by selecting a subset of sequences from the GenBank non-redundant protein database. No significant hits were obtained to the toxin database using the DNA sequences of the two 35S promoters; all hits had e-values higher than 0.6 (Table 1).
As no scientific literature has been reported on any allergenic properties of CaMV and no similarities have been shown to know allergens, it can be concluded that the P6 protein is most likely not an allergen. In addition, a toxin database was constructed, and no significant sequence similarity with the P35S variants was detected. These data suggest that the P35S variants do not contain ORFs that encode for proteins that have allergenic or toxic properties.
The Agriculture Department has approved a label for meat and liquid egg products that includes a claim about the absence of genetically engineered products.
It is the first time that the department, which regulates meat and poultry processing, has approved a non-G.M.O. label claim, which attests that meat certified by the Non-GMO Project came from animals that never ate feed containing genetically engineered ingredients like corn, soy and alfalfa.
In their Nature paper, the researchers reported that, at approximately 2.75 billion base pairs, the rat genome is smaller than the human genome, which is 2.9 billion base pairs, and slightly larger than mouse genome, which is 2.6 billion base pairs. However, they also found that the rat genome contains about the same number of genes as the human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, almost all human genes known to be associated with diseases have counterparts in the rat genome and appear highly conserved through mammalian evolution, confirming that the rat is an excellent model for many areas of medical research.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, while rats have 21 and mice have 20. However, the new analysis found chromosomes from all three organisms to be related to each other by about 280 large regions of sequence similarity - called "syntenic blocks" - distributed in varying patterns across the organisms' chromosomes.
The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2–3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5–5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3–2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences.
Discussion is important in science, but this publication stirred vigorous criticism by several scientists around the world. It has risen up great attention by the media that had no chance of getting an external expert opinion due to unusual non-disclosure clauses. The initial unbalanced media coverage is causing damage to an important tool for global food security. It is also important to avoid unnecessary distress and pain of the animals (e.g. Directive 2010/63/EU), the experiment should not go beyond the point required to meet the scientific objectives. I urge you to take adequate measures to keep the high standard quality of publications that come to your journal. This paper as it is now, presents poor quality science and dubious ethics.
Originally posted by purplemer
from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus
Originally posted by alfa1
Originally posted by purplemer
from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus
The gene fragment is from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus.
Its a naturally occuring plant virus.
It infects plants.
The cauliflower mosaic virus, called CaMV, is found in many commonly eaten vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, and cabbage. If you eat fresh vegetables, you eat billions of cauliflower mosaic virus particles, but that’s not a problem because plant viruses don’t infect people.
Lúcia de Souza, Ph.D. is a biologist with extensive experience in teaching and has been actively involved in biosafety for several years. Since 2005, she is the vice-president of the Brazilian National Biosafety Association (ANBio). She is also the deputy executive secretary of the Public Research and Regulation Initiative (PRRI).
This work is an example of a public-sector effort to develop useful traits, such as resistance to a devastating disease, in an “orphan crop” cultivated by poor farmers throughout Latin America. It is a milestone as it is the first fully “publicly funded homemade” recombinant biotechnology crop improvement strategy that has reached this stage in a developing country.