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Recent genetic research have demonstrated that Neanderthals contributed at least 1-4% to the non-African genome. Aspie Quiz have demonstrated in a large survey in the US population that Afroamericans have only 1/6 of the autism incidence of non-African groups.
Wood-working for shelters and fences
Rodeo-type injuries from wrestling large animals
Flutes and whistles for calling upon animals
Animals killed & eaten at the top of their usability
Many of the bones are of currently domestic species, and several of these "speciated" during the Neanderthal era
High-protein diet of Neanderthals
90,000 - 100,000 years ago Neanderthals had phalange whistles. 41 of them have been found in Prolom II in the Crimea. 70,000 - 80,000 years ago there is a flute in Haua Fteah, Libya, which has been found together with Neanderthal mandibles. Finally, 40,000 years ago there is another flute in Divje Babe
Cooperation with wolves were most likely a key to the ability for Neanderthals to survive in the cold Europe. Genetic research shows that dog and wolf parted 135,000 years ago. 76 They also reveal that the dogs ancestor is the European gray wolf.
Mitochondrial DNA lineages go back at least 300,000 years. A lot of the lineages are considerably older than 10,000 years when the horse was supposedly domesticated. 85 This result seems to indicate Neanderthals were involved in horse domestication as well.
This gives us an important clue to why Neanderthals failed in the competition with Homo Sapiens. One of the most important means by which innovations are preserved and transmitted is language. Neanderthals had language themselves.
The overall conclusion would be that, although Neanderthals did have the ability to speak, they were capable of articulating only a smaller number of phonemes. Jared Diamond described this limitation using the following example: imagine how many words you could say if the only sounds you were able to make were a, u, c, p. Imagine trying to say "Trinity College is a fine place to work." All you could say were something like "Capupa Cappap up a cap capupap."
For now, the Neanderthal genome is an abstract string of billions of DNA letters stored in computer databases. But it naturally sparks the imagination: Could scientists use that genetic blueprint to create neo-Neanderthals in the flesh? In the not-so-distant future, advances in genetic engineering might enable that feat, experts say. But whether such a resurrection should happen is another story.
If a human cell could be Neanderthalized, it would be implanted into the womb of a surrogate mother, either a woman or a chimp, and then develop into a fetus. But this step, too, would be extremely challenging. "We know from cloning experience that there's a very high failure rate," says geneticist James Noonan of Yale University.
Originally posted by MuzzleBreak
reply to post by rickymouse
They were almost bound to be light skinned. Living though harsh winters, inside a hut or cave, with animal skin clothing, vitamin D deficiency would have been a significant problem---and it would have been much worse if they had significant amounts of melanin in their skin.