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No. It's talking about light being absorbed and scattered within the water. Some of that light gets scattered back at you and that is why water looks blue...because it is.
The surface color is reflection, the Dartmouth link it talking about why it looks blue when you're under water and look up.
That makes no sense. If concrete were reflecting red light, it would look red. White concrete is white because it reflects all colors. Since water is blue, a white concrete pool looks blue because the light hitting it is blue and the the light reflected from it is blue.
When you fill a pool it only looks blue due to the white concrete reflecting back red spectrum light.
Yes, because dark colors absorb the blue light that water does not.
If your pool is made of stone the water looks completely clear.
I'm gonna say the image is a heat mirage caused by heat radiating from the surface into cooler ambient temperatures like it does here when you look out across a hot surface