Edwin Black unveils the latest research about eugenics in the Expanded Edition of his best-selling book, award-winning book "War Against the Weak" in a live event at North Carolina General Assembly's Legislative Auditorium April 25 at Noon ET. The event is sponsored by the Campbell University Law School in Raleigh, North Carolina, in partnership with the Urban League of Winston-Salem, the American Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists, North Carolina Holocaust Council, Jewish Life at Duke, Scholars for Peace in the Middle East, the State of California Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, Human Rights and Tolerance, The Auto Channel, History Network News, The Cutting Edge News, Spero Forum, and the Jewish Virtual Library.
Broadcast takes place on in Raleigh NC at Noon ET, April 25, 2012.
Eugenics would have been so much bizarre parlor talk had it not been for extensive financing by corporate philanthropies, specifically the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad fortune. They were all in league with some of America's most respected scientists hailing from such prestigious universities as Stamford, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton. These academicians espoused race theory and race science, and then faked and twisted data to serve eugenics' racist aims. Stanford president David Starr Jordan originated the notion of "race and blood" in his 1902 racial epistle "Blood of a Nation," in which the university scholar declared that human qualities and conditions such as talent and poverty were passed through the blood. In 1904, the Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America, as well as the nation's social service agencies and associations. The Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities, such as the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration, to seek out Jewish, Italian and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities and subject them to deportation, trumped up confinement or forced sterilization. The Rockefeller Foundation helped found the German eugenics program and even funded the program that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz. Much of the spiritual guidance and political agitation for the American eugenics movement came from California's quasi-autonomous eugenic societies, such as the Pasadena-based Human Betterment Foundation and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated much of their activity with the Eugenics Research Society in Long Island. These organizations--which functioned as part of a closely-knit network--published racist eugenic newsletters and pseudoscientific journals, such as Eugenical News and Eugenics, and propagandized for the Nazis.
Originally posted by buddha
They have done a good job of keeping this quiet.
it needs to be put on TV as a documentary.
In 1990, in a book describing his view of human genetics, Berkeley sociologist Troy Duster spoke about a back door to eugenics, one that is made up of “screens, treatments, and therapies,”3 and a few years later, Arthur Dyck, a professor of ethics at Harvard, wrote the following: Science, medicine and law at present willingly provide the information, rationale, and technical know-how for current eugenic practices in the United States, some of them quite coercive and arguably unethical… Eugenics is not simply a matter of history. Eugenics is practiced today… [and] the very ideas and concepts that informed and motivated German physicians and the Nazi state are in place. 4
Dyck and Duster were not alone in telling us that eugenics is actively being pursued in the practice of human and medical genetics. For example, Dorothy Wertz said it outright: “Eugenics is alive and well.”5 The basis for her assertion is that, whereas only some geneticists regard what they are doing as being eugenics, counseling for prenatal diagnosis is “pessimistically biased” or “slanted” and counselors have a “pessimistic view of persons with disabilities,”—perhaps not so much in the English-speaking countries, but certainly in the rest of the world. Similarly, Science, in reporting a survey on cloning, tells us that “eugenics is gaining broader acceptance overall,” in this instance equating eugenics with prenatal diagnosis for desirable traits and the use of genetic engineering to produce these traits. 6 And, in a comment cited in an article reporting that the governor of Virginia recently apologized for Virginia's 1924 law authorizing involuntary sterilization for eugenic purposes, Barbara Bieseker is quoted to the effect that prenatal diagnosis may be operating in a “milieu of personal eugenics.”7
The worst accusation that can be leveled against modern human genetics and medical genetics is that they are eugenic—if not a literal return to the eugenics of the past, at least a reincarnation of that eugenics in a new guise. The mere use of the word “eugenics” brings forth very visceral responses. Richard Dawkins, of The Selfish Gene fame, tells us that, “If cannibalism is our greatest taboo, positive eugenics… is a candidate for the second… In our time, the word [eugenics] has a chilling ring. If a policy is described as ‘eugenic,’ that is enough for most people to rule it out at once….”8 And, according to Diane Paul, “the term is wielded like a club. To label a policy ‘eugenics’ is to say, in effect, that it is not just bad but beyond the pale.”9
Exhibitions of Igorot peoples at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair, the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition, the 1907 Jamestown Exposition, and the 1909 Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exposition served largely to reinforce popular notions of Filipino inferiority. The displays stressed the “primitivism” of Igorot culture, particularly dog-eating, a common practice in many cultures, and head-hunting. Such practices functioned as gauges of the savagery of the newly conquered peoples of “Uncle Sam’s island domain.”
During the process of recruiting for the Philippine Exhibit, there was evident use of trickery on some occasions in order to gather tribal people for the Exhibit. Some of the recruits were not aware of their destination until they arrived in St. Louis. Similarly, a knowledgeable recruit had signed up as belonging to an Igorot tribe to which he does not belong in his desire to come to America. The trip from the Philippines to the United States was by ship across the ocean and by train across the main land. The trip was long and difficult for some. In general, the recruits were well treated and well fed. Some became ill during the train ride due to the cold weather to which they were not accustomed. At least two people died due to illness. The St. Louis World's Fair was the grandest of all Fairs and the Philippine Exhibit took the honor of being the largest and most popular one at this Fair. It occupied 47 acres of land, had 100 buildings and was the most expensive to build at a cost of two million dollars.
Originally posted by CALGARIAN
Everyone will have to answer for what they've done. Whether in Heaven or somewhere else.
Eugenics was practised in the United States many years before eugenics programs in Nazi Germany and actually, U.S. programs provided much of the inspiration for the latter. Stefan Kühl has documented the consensus between Nazi race policies and those of eugenicists in other countries, including the United States, and points out that eugenicists understood Nazi policies and measures as the realization of their goals and demands.
A hallmark of the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th century, now generally associated with racist and nativist elements (as the movement was to some extent a reaction to a change in emigration from Europe) rather than scientific genetics, eugenics was considered a method of preserving and improving the dominant groups in the population.
The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s.
The Immigration Restriction League was the first American entity associated officially with eugenics. Founded in 1894 by three recent Harvard University graduates, the League sought to bar what it considered inferior races from entering America and diluting what it saw as the superior American racial stock (upper class Northerners of Anglo-Saxon heritage).
Both class and race factored into eugenic definitions of “fit” and “unfit.” By using intelligence testing, American eugenicists asserted that social mobility was indicative of one’s genetic fitness. This reaffirmed the existing class and racial hierarchies and explained why the upper-to-middle class was predominately white. Middle-to-upper class status was a marker of “superior strains.” In contrast, eugenicists believed poverty to be a characteristic of genetic inferiority, which meant that that those deemed “unfit” were predominately of the lower classes.
In 1907, Indiana passed the first eugenics-based compulsory sterilization law in the world. Thirty U.S. states would soon follow their lead. Although the law was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court in 1921, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a Virginia law allowing for the compulsory sterilization of patients of state mental institutions in 1927.
Some states sterilized "imbeciles" for much of the 20th century. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1927 Buck v. Bell case that the state of Virginia could sterilize those it thought unfit. Although compulsory sterilization is now considered an abuse of human rights, Buck v. Bell was never overturned, and Virginia did not repeal its sterilization law until 1974. The most significant era of eugenic sterilization was between 1907 and 1963, when over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.
A 1937 Fortune magazine poll found that 2/3 of respondents supported eugenic sterilization of "mental defectives", 63% supported sterilization of criminals, and only 15% opposed both.
Native American women were also victims of sterilization abuse up into the 1970s. The organization WARN (Women of All Red Nations) publicized that Native American women were threatened that, if they had more children, they would be denied welfare benefits.
One of the methods that was commonly suggested to get rid of "inferior" populations was euthanasia. A 1911 Carnegie Institute report mentioned euthanasia as one of its recommended "solutions" to the problem of cleansing society of unfit genetic attributes.
In the 1930s, there was a wave of portrayals of eugenic "mercy killings" in American film, newspapers, and magazines. In 1931, the Illinois Homeopathic Medicine Association began lobbying for the right to euthanize "imbeciles" and other defectives. The Euthanasia Society of America was founded in 1938.
Overall, however, euthanasia was marginalized in the U.S., motivating people to turn to forced segregation and sterilization programs as a means for keeping the "unfit" from reproducing.
The Rockefeller Foundation helped develop and fund various German eugenics programs, including the one that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.
After the eugenics movement was well established in the United States, it spread to Germany. California eugenicists began producing literature promoting eugenics and sterilization and sending it overseas to German scientists and medical professionals. By 1933, California had subjected more people to forceful sterilization than all other U.S. states combined. The forced sterilization program engineered by the Nazis was partly inspired by California's.
Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws. In 1936, Laughlin was invited to an award ceremony at Heidelberg University in Germany (scheduled on the anniversary of Hitler's 1934 purge of Jews from the Heidelberg faculty), to receive an honorary doctorate for his work on the "science of racial cleansing". Due to financial limitations, Laughlin was unable to attend the ceremony and had to pick it up from the Rockefeller Institute. Afterwards, he proudly shared the award with his colleagues, remarking that he felt that it symbolized the "common understanding of German and American scientists of the nature of eugenics."