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Originally posted by kimish
They all use Pi or something similar as a basis for their maths?
They know about 360 degrees?
Originally posted by kimish
They were familiar with attitude and longitude? Which also aided in their skills of travel and map making?
The Chaco Meridian by James Q. Jacobs
In February of 1990, I noticed that Big Horn Medicine Wheel, Aztec Pueblo, the Pueblos of Chaco Canyon, and the Mimbres Valley are all situated on an approximate north-south line near the 108th meridian. I informed the New Mexico State Archaeologist of the finding. This observation was an outgrowth of my rock art fieldwork and, previous to that, an interest in ancient astronomy as evidenced in architecture. In the '80s, I had first noticed a group of rock art sites with similar images on an approximate meridian. Thereafter I began studying archaeology maps and mapping unmapped archaeological sites. In 1991, I noticed that Casas Grandes, in Northern Mexico, is on the same meridian as Chaco. Four major cultural centers are concentrated on an approximate N-S line.
Meridians have been used historically to determine the scale of the earth, so I gave the sites and meridian further attention. Mt. Wilson, one of the highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, is also on the meridian. I named the concentration the "Chaco Meridian" and noticed that the arc distance from Pueblo Bonito to Mount Wilson precisely equals 1/200th of the circumference of the earth, or 1.80 modern degrees. Likewise, of course, for the latitude difference from Mt. Wilson to Pueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl.
After observation of the meridional alignment of these American Southwest sites, I examined other areas for other arrangements. In February of 1991 I first noticed a meridional concentration for the Dzibilchaltun observatory, Merida (prehistoric Tiho), Sayil, Kihoic, Hormiguero, Uaxactun, Tikal, Las Tinajas, and El Trapiche (Tazumal). I termed this longitudinal concentration the "Maya Meridian." On March 21, 1991, while checking the distances between Chac Mools, I noticed the 1/36 of circumference distance (10.0 degrees) from the Tenochtitlan pyramid to the Castillo pyramid at Chichen Itza (both have Chac Mools in their interiors). I also noticed the Tikal to Chichen Itza arc distance of 1/100 of circumference.
During Nov. 1991, to accurately check site-to-site relationships at greater distances, I began using spherical trigonometry. I discovered that the Newgrange-Cheops arc equals 1/10th of circumference and the Newgrange-Avebury arc equals 1/100th of circumference. These early findings prompted continued inquiries, and more site relationships have since been noted. Some evidence infers a relationship between the Chaco Meridian and the Maya Meridian. A more detailed explanation of my concepts regarding the relationship of ancient monuments to geodesy and geodesy-related astronomy is found in the Archaeogeodesy article series.