A Disturbing Essay on Islamic Scientific Development

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posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:23 PM
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Dear ATSers,

This is difficult to post, I suspect it will be controversial. It's here because it presents a view I had not seriously considered before, perhaps you haven't either. What effect has the culture of Islam had on Science and Society? Islam itself is difficult to discuss as it is a soup of religion, government, centuries old culture, and powerful tribal loyalties. It seems impossible to talk about unless what is meant by Islam is first defined.

In reading the essay, and I really hope you will, I got the impression that the author was talking about Islam as a culture or lifestyle, and not as a religion. Neither he, nor I, am here condemning the religion of Islam or the Quoran. The essay is very frank and while I hope for intelligent thoughtful discussion, I will be satisfied if there is a measure of respect and no one-line insults.

The first paragraph:

Contrary to what has been told us, Islam may be the most sterile philosophy to have captured the mind of man. No other philosophy so thoroughly destroys whatever people it has gotten a grip on. Once Islam is firmly in control, the society not only halts in its progress, but actively devolves.
See, I told you it would be controversial. If you're angry already please consider going to another thread.

The author supports his position by noting that the concept of "zero," frequently claimed as an Arabic discovery, is, in fact from the Hindus.
en.wikipedia.org...
He then touches on "algebra" which he admits is an Arabic word. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi is often claimed to be the inventor or founder of algebra, but the essayist notes:

However, 'it is now known that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources.' In fact, it is not clear if he was even a Muslim. He may have been a Zoroastrian.


Another epithet given to him by al-Tabari, "al-Majusi," would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion. This would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin... en.wikipedia.org...


The inventor of algebra may not have been a Muslim after all. Even if he was, he was reared in a society so recently invaded by Islam that it still retained a spark of its pre-Islamic genius. That light would perish soon enough.


Additional points raised are that the Arabic "Medical Genius" was based on Greek texts and Jewish doctors.

The most famous medical mind during that time was arguably Moses Ben Maimonides, a Jew who had to flee Spain because of Muslim excesses under Almohad rule: 12th century puritan Islamicists.
Muslim architecture was actually taken from the Christian Byzantine Greeks.

The Spanish aqueducts were not created by the Muslims, but by the Romans. The Muslims cleaned and extended them.

Is Spain unique? The author thinks not:

This is a constant pattern of Islam. It invades a society where, for a century or two, there is enough remaining pre-Islamic genius to echo on for a while. Over time, coerced conversions increase with the accruing stupefaction of national intellect. As the light dims and goes out, the Muslims, now thoroughly in charge, take the credit for the former flame lit by others.
Is there really stupefaction of the intellect? The author asks what Mecca has produced in the last 1400 years then points to London, Paris, Madrid, Rome, and Berlin, other centers of empires. There have only been two Muslims who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in any of the sciences. One earned his as part of a team working in California and the other was declared to be a non-Muslim by government officials who erased the word "Muslim" from his tombstone. And today?

Even in the Muslim world, it is recognized that the Christians are arguably the most dynamic part of their societies, as Al-Jadid, a Los Angeles-based Arab journal hints at:


The continuing exodus of Christians from the Middle East is... in fact potentially quite dangerous, and this is true not just for Christians but for Arabs in general. The Middle East may not be able to sustain the amputation of one of its most integral and dynamic components. www.aljadid.com...
The author believes that it is not a question of being Arab. As he notes:

Most embarrassing is the success of those Arabs who have left the Islamic world. Ecuador has had three Arab presidents. Colombia has had one Arab president. El Salvador, one. Honduras, one. Argentina, one. The Dominican Republic, two. I won't even list the vice-presidents. Even non-Latin Jamaica had a Lebanese President, Edward Seaga.

The Arabs are wealthy, elite, and vastly overrepresented in all halls of power and the arts in Latin America. In Chile, Palestinian Christians are 10% of the Senate, though only 3% of the population. In Colombia, Lebanese are 10% of the Sentate, though less than 2% of the population.

What is ignored is that almost all these Western Arabs are Christian; or, at least, raised in a Christian culture. This undoubtedly explains their success, but no one dares admit it.


Finally the author believes that Islam must expand, because only from the unconquered countries can they obtain the sufficient science and creativity to survive.

The essay in it's entirety may be found here:
www.americanthinker.com...

With respect,
Charles1952




posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:28 PM
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Well at least they gave us coffee eh.

To be perfectly honest im still looking for reds under my beds.



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:38 PM
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reply to post by charles1952
 


Explanation: S&F!

I am not angry ok!




This is a constant pattern of Islam. It invades a society where, for a century or two, there is enough remaining pre-Islamic genius to echo on for a while. Over time, coerced conversions increase with the accruing stupefaction of national intellect. As the light dims and goes out, the Muslims, now thoroughly in charge, take the credit for the former flame lit by others.


Those that claim credit for what rightfully belongs to Allah ... are not muslims no matter what they say ok!


The question must be broached. 'Is Islam holding the Arabs back?'


No and here is why ...


Arabs who have left the Islamic world. Ecuador has had three Arab presidents. Colombia has had one Arab president. El Salvador, one. Honduras, one. Argentina, one. The Dominican Republic, two. I won't even list the vice-presidents. Even non-Latin Jamaica had a Lebanese President, Edward Seaga.

The Arabs are wealthy, elite, and vastly overrepresented in all halls of power and the arts in Latin America. In Chile, Palestinian Christians are 10% of the Senate, though only 3% of the population. In Colombia, Lebanese are 10% of the Sentate, though less than 2% of the population.


They can simply leave!


Personal Disclosure: Islam is secondary! Allah is primary! Islam can claim nothing that Allah has not granted.

I hope this helps.


+12 more 
posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:46 PM
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I would say all religion devolves us , look at the crusades , look at the witch hunting , the inquisition, look at the people who look like they are having seizures on the floor while talking in tongues , to the acceptance of pedophilia in the catholic churches from it's members who still follow it . islam is no better than nazism , catholics , christians , jews , ladder saints .

ETA they have seemed to all have brought out the worst of humanity through out time
edit on 20/4/13 by freedomSlave because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:49 PM
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I think that it is best not to throw the baby out with the bath water.

Personally, I am grateful to elements of Muslim cultures from throughout history. I am lately especially grateful that they held on to the Plato long enough for the western dark age to pass.

I also think that it has to do with where a culture places its emphasis, and the things that are often emphasized in Islam of Muslim culture are shockingly not what we emphasize.

I wish that we would get out of their hair and just let them 'make business' and express themselves any way that they please, but, "if wishes were fishes", and all.

So, what's with the list, Charles?
edit on 20-4-2013 by Bybyots because:




posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:51 PM
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reply to post by OmegaLogos
 

Dear OmegaLogos,

Thank you very much. I wanted to explore this idea which was new to me and I'm very grateful for your helpful response. You are what I was hoping for (among other things).


Personal Disclosure: Islam is secondary! Allah is primary! Islam can claim nothing that Allah has not granted.
We might use different words, but I agree that everything in the Universe can be traced back to the Creator. He has given us our minds and allowed us to do with them as we choose.

Isn't there another, more worldly, level where people are judged based on their accomplishments? Give a scientist a $50 chemistry lab and he will be able to do certain things. Put the same scientist in a research university's chemistry lab and he will be able to accomplish much more. Most people would say that the $50 lab hindered his efforts and reduced his accomplishments. I believe the author of the essay was trying to make the case that the Islamic culture acts like the $50 chemistry lab.

With respect,
Charles1952



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:52 PM
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I think this article is written with Crusader bias...

We are still fighting a war between Isaac and Ishmael...

Allah/Yahweh are one...

All the prophets have the root of the holy name in their names...

Asalaam Aleikhem...

Shalom Aleikhem...

Peace...



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 10:57 PM
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reply to post by freedomSlave
 

Dear freedomSlave,

Thanks a lot. Another good post!

May I suggest that the essay was pointing out that, in his opinion, the acceptance of Islam has slowed scientific and creative progress where it is accepted?

I'm sure that religious people do bad things, (I would disagree with some of the items you mentioned), but I believe morality is an individual choice. Not a choice to determine what is good or bad, but each individual's choice to do good or bad.

And we don't really have a control groupto compare with, do we? Where is the good society that was religion free?

With respect,
Charles1952



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:09 PM
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I truly doubt that this isn't a bashing Islam thread.

+ here is a list of Iranian Muslms scientists

As about the era of 6th Imam , when the pressure on him was less than ever , he could teach about 4000 students. muslims could gather and establish schools. I know Iranian figures such as Abu ali sina(Doctor , philosopher) , abu rayhan biruni (Chemistry scientist ,discovered Alcohol) , Knaje nezamul molke tusi (made a observatory and wrote books on position of stars) , Mulla sadra (philosopher) , Sheikh bahayi(artist and philosopher) were living on the shining era of Iranian Muslims pioneering in science , religion and art.

Islam is different than what your MSM tells you it is. It is different than extremists do.

sheikh bahayi

َAbu ali sin - also know as ibne sina

khaje Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Khaje nezal al mulk e tusi

Khayam neishaburi

Mulla sadra

Abu rayhan biruni

and here is the opinion of a Muslims philosopher who is alive today :

my reference Ayatollah Javadi Amoli.

He says " all the knowledge is religious. And the only science which can think about this is philosophy."

He says Qur'an tells us to think about events like "13:4
and in the earth are tracts (diverse though) neighbouring, and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn, and palm trees - growing out of single roots or otherwise: watered with the same water, yet some of them we make more excellent than others to eat. behold, verily in these things there are signs for those who understand!"

And there are more like : " 3:190-191

behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day,- there are indeed signs for men of understanding,

such as remember allah, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, (and say): our lord! thou createdst not this in vain. glory be to thee! preserve us from the doom of fire."

old reply

Islam is neither a culture . neither a lifestyle. It is a comprehensive religion that has instructions for human beings since they are born to the moment they are buried.




Most embarrassing is the success of those Arabs who have left the Islamic world. Ecuador has had three Arab presidents. Colombia has had one Arab president. El Salvador, one. Honduras, one. Argentina, one. The Dominican Republic, two. I won't even list the vice-presidents. Even non-Latin Jamaica had a Lebanese President, Edward Seaga.


Islam is not for Arabs although the language is Arabic since it is most accurate. Islam is not about any particular race or color.

The twisted minds with some personal agenda + bigotry is covering the eyes to interpret the truth like this article does.

I hope your govt stop propaganda about Islam and we see a fruitful relationship between Islam and west (west is west , it is not Christianity)



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:11 PM
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reply to post by Bybyots
 

Dear Bybyots,

I'm grateful to you for continuing the respectful posting. You couldn't make me happier if you gave me 72 virgins.


Personally, I am grateful to elements of Muslim cultures from throughout history. I am lately especially grateful that they held on to the Plato long enough for the Western dark age to pass.
Keeping Plato is a wonderful thing. I'd like some help though, I thought the texts were preserved in monasteries by the Church. Please, fill me in on my history.

I also think that it has to do with where a culture places its emphasis, and the things that are often emphasized in Islam of Muslim culture are shockingly not what we emphasize.
You are absolutely right! Brilliant!

Now, is it possible to say that one culture has chosen better than another? Let me offer an example. I saw an article today showing and describing North Korean 11 year-olds getting military training including marching and shooting. Can we say that is wrong? Can we say that America's emphasis, perhaps on the military and corporate profits, is wrong? Is it wrong that some African counties burn witches?


I wish that we would get out of their hair and just let them 'make business' and express themselves any way that they please, but, "if wishes were fishes", and all.
Fine with me. Would they then stay out of everyone else's hair?


So, what's with the list, Charles?
Hate to say it, but I'm baffled. What list?

With respect,
Charles1952



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:15 PM
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reply to post by totallackey
 

Dear totallackey,

Perhaps it was written with "Crusader bias," I don't know. Perhaps the writer's mind is biased, but the ideas are interesting nonetheless, and he does provide some facts. I'd really rather not throw the whole thing out because I might suspect bias. We all have some bias.

With respect,
Charles1952



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:27 PM
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Originally posted by charles1952
reply to post by Bybyots
 




You know what, man? I'm sorry.

Fact is, I do invite any revisionist approach to dismantling history. The wheat will be sifted from the chaff.

Live and let live, I say.

I don't have much else to add.

edit on 20-4-2013 by Bybyots because: ciao



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:42 PM
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reply to post by mideast
 

Dear mideast,

I am sorry that you saw this as an Islam bashing thread. I think I can understand why you believe it is, but that wasn't my intent. In any event, thank you for pointing out counter-examples. If I remember they were primarily from the Khorazan group of scholars 900-1000 years ago.

I would be silly to say that any relatively modern society can not produce a scientist, but I think the author's point isn't defeated by saying that a millenium ago there were Arab scholars.

Your reference to a modern philosopher is very interesting. It's unfortunate that I received little value from the link, none of which is in English.


He says " all the knowledge is religious. And the only science which can think about this is philosophy."
May I admit that I find this confusing? How are areas of study such as physics, or chemistry handled? Are they religious? Is philosophy the only thing that needs to be studied now? I'm not trying to fight, I just don't understand it.


Islam is neither a culture . neither a lifestyle. It is a comprehensive religion that has instructions for human beings since they are born to the moment they are buried.
Thank you, I didn't know how to consider it. Do you suppose that Westerners, or those with a tradition of liberty, would find Islam to be too restrictive or controlling?


The twisted minds with some personal agenda + bigotry is covering the eyes to interpret the truth like this article does.
Again, you might be right about the bigotry, I don't know. Don't we need to consider the ideas presented and the evidence he supplies? While it is possible, I don't think this is government propaganda.

I wonder what you envision when you hope for a "fruitful relationship between Islam and west?" I am afraid that those who describe the US as "The Great Satan" may not wish for a fruitful relationship.

With respect,
Charles1952



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:48 PM
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Originally posted by charles1952
reply to post by freedomSlave
 


May I suggest that the essay was pointing out that, in his opinion, the acceptance of Islam has slowed scientific and creative progress where it is accepted?


I see it as I said all that I mentioned (except for the nazis as they had made incredible leaps in medical science and many other areas. ) we are held back on science and progress to some degree given in the west our countries do not allow a church states approach to politics and governing . Christians and Catholics and Judaism still fight tooth and nail with the scientific communities and on it's progress . If any of these groups had full reign on a country in the west I don't think it would be any different from the countries run by Islamic fundamentals.

As I mentioned with the inquisition they were killing people who spoke of science that contradicted their faith. Could you imagine the west boro baptist church as the potus and all of congress or took over my complete governing body up here in Canada or anywhere else in the west. We are just lucky to live where we do so that we can progress how we have been personally I still feel we are being held back by the lobbying of powerful church groups .



And we don't really have a control groupto compare with, do we? Where is the good society that was religion free?

we don't religion has to much of a strangle hold of this planet . I think we are getting there slowly as technology advances.

We have to look on all side of an debate with an open mind it not just pointing the finger at just one it not really fair ruling out the fact that many countries of Islam are run and governed by fundamentalist where we are not we have a separation of church from state ( for the most part) . We have all seen what happen to people that speak out against their government in some of these countries . Islam reminds me of Christianity many centuries ago .

As much as I hate to say it everyone in the western population is educated as opposed to those countries where the majority have probably not have basic education , in the west the religious percentage is declining .

Eta I do rather enjoy the topic and civil manner

snf
edit on 20/4/13 by freedomSlave because: (no reason given)



posted on Apr, 20 2013 @ 11:51 PM
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You want a good book on this subject, read Robert Reilly's "the closing of the Muslim Mind: How intellectual suicide created the modern Islamist crisis".

It essentially provides the theological and metaphysical backing for why the Islamic (particularly Sunni) epistemology is what we could call backwards. This dates back to the Asharite school of Islamic theology, with it's biggest supporter and idealogue being the great Al Ghazali, whose own wikipedia page can't resist the urge not to mention the effect his philosophy has had on stunting Islamic interest in rational philosophy, and ultimately the sciences.

As long as mainstream Islam continues to prefer Al Ghazali and his line of teaching to the more rational mode of Quranic interpretation, like that advanced by the Mutalzalim, the persian philospher Avicenna and the Andulasian scholar Averroes, Islam will always find itself at odds with the modern world.

In the geography of thought, there are three main competing world views: the West, the East, and the Islamic. The East has come to embrace the epistemological pragmatism of Western ratiocination. Likewise, the west, not to the same degree as the East, has come to better appreciate the wholistic perspective emblematic of eastern thought. But Islam, Islam is stuck in the mud. It is the most stagnant civilization the world knows. While Japan, China, India, South Korea, are either flourishing or blossoming economies, with real entrepreneurial and innovative ability, Islamic countries are asleep, struggling with its self image, simultaneously paranoid about the west, jealous of its successes, and resistant to accept its wisdom.

Islam has to identify what it can bring to humanity. The East knows itself, as does the west. Islams monotheism, its devotion to Gods path, need not be at constant war with otherness, with diversity. If Judaism can concede, and Christianity can accept the variation of Gods manifestations, so can Islam. This is what, metaphysically speaking, is required for a Muslim to embrace the modern world. Dogma, Jihad, all that has to be brought into focus by recognizing the commonalities between all groups: love, the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom. If this is the bear minimum to secure peace, then it must be Gods will that we live this way.

It'll work itself out eventually, but given the current renaissance Islamic fundamentalism is enjoying in the Islamic world, who knows when we'll see a truly prosperous and self secure Muslim world.



posted on Apr, 21 2013 @ 12:01 AM
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reply to post by dontreally
 

Dear dontreally,

All I can say, besides "thank you," is WOW! I am so grateful when someone is willing to share their knowledge with me. That's what I was hoping for here, and you have repaid me a hundred-fold. if you'd like, stick around and see how the discussion goes, or check back tomorrow.

With respect,
Charles1952



posted on Apr, 21 2013 @ 12:07 AM
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Originally posted by mideast
I truly doubt that this isn't a bashing Islam thread.


I disagree with all religions . I base people on their character as a human being I have much respect for people from all walks of life and faiths .
edit on 21/4/13 by freedomSlave because: typo
edit on 21/4/13 by freedomSlave because: fixed the wrong word



posted on Apr, 21 2013 @ 12:16 AM
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reply to post by freedomSlave
 

Dear freedomSlave,

Thanks for the explanation, I see a little more clearly now. My problem is how to satisfactorily respond to your thoughts without turning this into a Science v. Religion thread. Well, let me try.


Christians and Catholics and Judaism still fight tooth and nail with the scientific communities and on it's progress . If any of these groups had full reign on a country in the west I don't think it would be any different from the countries run by Islamic fundamentals.
Perhaps, but I haven't seen the hostility to science that you have. Israel, a pretty Jewish country, has been turning out scientists and Nobel Prize winners far more frequently than their small population would indicate.

You're absolutely right that having Westboro Baptist Church run everything in the country would be a complete disaster. Is it possible that science is not being held back by religion, but by people who make it the only thing in their existence, the only thing worth studying? I suspect, but don't know, that that may be a problem for Islam that other religions don't share.

And in the US we were so universally Christian through most of our history that we might as well have been run by the Christian religion, yet our science was envied world-wide.

I'm sorry I've skipped over the rest of your comments. If you'd like them addressed I'll be happy to go back. I have to confess I'm eager to see what else is in the mail bag for us.

With respect,
Charles1952

P.s. "Eta I do rather enjoy the topic and civil manner" I really do too. Granted it's not news or a conspiracy, but this is what i was looking for from ATS. Thanks for contributing. - C -



posted on Apr, 21 2013 @ 12:18 AM
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reply to post by charles1952
 





May I admit that I find this confusing? How are areas of study such as physics, or chemistry handled?


He means that philosophy is the only branch of science which can comment on origin of other Physics or Chemistry.

I may try to bring an example to be more accurate. He means that when some scientist says that the universe has been made in an accident , he is commenting on religion , the origin of events , the beginning of creation , so he is commenting on philosophy of creation which is beyond physics or chemistry.

For they are science that generally discover the laws disregarding the origin. Chemistry says that a metal with theses properties is Iron , but it can never say that where did it came from from.

And you may have heard that some say that this universe was made of some mass , some say it was made of energy.But they have not said where the mass or energy came from because they do not define their domain of knowledge to that point.

And that is the philosophy based on continues and none-discrete logic that can go and discuss about those events which are mostly out of reach.



I wonder what you envision when you hope for a "fruitful relationship between Islam and west?" I am afraid that those who describe the US as "The Great Satan" may not wish for a fruitful relationship.


But they have their own reasons. They see how easily it is imposing it's idea on the nations. How it invades countries and destroys them . How it kills it's own people to justify putting passing new laws and start new wars. How it is helping terrorists with one hand and call Muslims the terrorists with the other hand.How they support and help Saudi family and wahhabi new western sect with one hand and they criticize Islam with the other hand.

US has history of using dangerous chemical weapons such as agent orange , helping Saddam as our enemy with WMD's , doing coup such as project Ajax , helping Iranian dictator Shah , planning another coup in 2009 helping a velvet revolution , using nuclear weapon on civilians and.....

And these recent bombings are the most recent threat to Islamic world.

here is the comment of Khamenei on recent bombings , but I bet that US govt is planning to put more pressure on American people in the name of Islam or insist on some new propaganda to invade somewhere new.

And my opinion is "with American govt , nothing is off the table"



“Following Islamic logic, the Islamic Republic of Iran opposes any blast or the killing of innocents be it in Boston in the US or Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq or Syria and condemns it,” Ayatollah Khamenei said on Wednesday.

“The US is waging terrorist warfare against people all over the world and then when something like this happens in Boston, the media generates a huge outcry, whipping people up into a kind of a xenophobic frenzy blaming it on some others,” Barrett added.


ATS



posted on Apr, 21 2013 @ 12:33 AM
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reply to post by charles1952
 


Explanation: St*rred!


Isn't there another, more worldly, level where people are judged based on their accomplishments?


Yes!

But ...

  • Judged by whome?

    And ...

  • Are those judging worthy of the title of 'judge'?

    Also ...

  • Would a true muslim care about any of these 'scientific worldly accomplishments' ?


    Personal Disclosure: A $50 science lab is better than no labs ... and besides ... it is not what one has ... but instead what one does with what one has ... that counts.

    Maybe the author of the article forgot to do some research ... because they don't list one thing that the Islamic culture PERFECTED ...which was mosaics [hint: go look up topology and tiling in both maths and science]!

    Girih tiles [wiki]




    Girih tiles are a set of five tiles that were used in the creation of tiling patterns for decoration of buildings in Islamic architecture. They are known to have been used since about the year 1200 and their arrangements found significant improvement starting with the Darb-i Imam shrine in Isfahan in Iran built in 1453.

    The five shapes of the tiles are:

    a regular decagon with ten interior angles of 144°;
    an elongated (irregular convex) hexagon with interior angles of 72°, 144°, 144°, 72°, 144°, 144°;
    a bow tie (non-convex hexagon) with interior angles of 72°, 72°, 216°, 72°, 72°, 216°;
    a rhombus with interior angles of 72°, 108°, 72°, 108°; and
    a regular pentagon with five interior angles of 108°.
    All sides of these figures have the same length; and all their angles are multiples of 36° (π/5). All of them, except the pentagon, have bilateral (reflection) symmetry through two perpendicular lines. Some have additional symmetries. Specifically, the decagon has tenfold rotational symmetry (rotation by 36°); and the pentagon has fivefold rotational symmetry (rotation by 72°).

    Girih are lines (strapwork) which decorate the tiles. The tiles are used to form girih patterns, from the Persian word گره, meaning "knot". In most cases, only the girih (and other minor decorations like flowers) are visible rather than the boundaries of the tiles themselves. The girih are piece-wise straight lines which cross the boundaries of the tiles at the center of an edge at 54° (3π/10) to the edge. Two intersecting girih cross each edge of a tile. Most tiles have a unique pattern of girih inside the tile which are continuous and follow the symmetry of the tile. However, the decagon has two possible girih patterns one of which has only fivefold rather than tenfold rotational symmetry.




    Specifically ...


    In 2007, Peter J. Lu of Harvard University and Professor Paul J. Steinhardt of Princeton University published a paper in the journal Science suggesting that girih tilings possessed properties consistent with self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tilings such as Penrose tilings (presentation 1974, predecessor works starting in about 1964) predating them by five centuries.







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