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Attempts of standardized temperature measurement have been reported as early as 170 AD by Claudius Galenus. The modern scientific field has its origins in the works by Florentine scientists in the 17th century. Early devices to measure temperature were called thermoscopes. The first sealed thermometer was constructed in 1641 by the Grand Duke of Toscani, Ferdinand II. The development of today's thermometers and temperature scales began in the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheit adapted a thermometer using mercury and a scale both developed by Ole Christensen Rømer. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use, alongside the Celsius scale and the Kelvin scale.
Meteorological observatories measure the temperature and humidity of the air near the surface of the Earth usually using thermometers placed in a Stevenson screen, a standardized well-ventilated white-painted instrument shelter. The thermometers should be positioned 1.25–2 m above the ground. Important note. Details of this setup are defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
The true daily mean, obtained from a thermograph, is approximated by the mean of 24 hourly readings (which is not the same as the mean of the daily minimum and maximum readings).
The world's average surface air temperature is about 15 °C.
he summer 2012 North American heat wave is a heat wave which has led to more than 82 heat-related deaths across the United States and Canada.. An additional twenty-two lives were lost in the resultant June 2012 North American derecho. This long-lived, straight-line wind and its thunderstorms cut electrical power to 3.7 million customers. Over 500,000 were still without power on July 6, as the heat wave continued. Temperatures generally decreased somewhat the week of July 9 in the east, but the high pressure shifted to the west, causing the core of the hot weather to the build in the Mountain States and the southwest U. S. shifting eastwards again by mid-July. As of early August, the core of the heat remains over the Southern Plains.
ypically, climate change is described in terms of average changes in temperature or precipitation, but most of the social and economic costs associated with climate change will result from shifts in the frequency and severity of extreme events.1 This fact is illustrated by a large number of costly weather disasters in 2010, which tied 2005 as the warmest year globally since 1880.2 Incidentally, both years were noted for exceptionally damaging weather events, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the deadly Russian heat wave in 2010. Other remarkable events of 2010 include Pakistan’s biggest flood, Canada’s warmest year, and Southwest Australia’s driest year. 2011 continued in similar form, with “biblical” flooding in Australia, the second hottest summer in U.S. history, devastating drought and wildfires in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona as well as historic flooding in North Dakota, the Lower Mississippi and in the Northeast.3
WORCESTER, England — Britons may remember 2012 as the year the weather spun off its rails in a chaotic concoction of drought, deluge and flooding, but the unpredictability of it all turns out to have been all too predictable: Around the world, extreme has become the new commonplace.
Especially lately. China is enduring its coldest winter in nearly 30 years. Brazil is in the grip of a dreadful heat spell. Eastern Russia is so freezing — minus 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and counting — that the traffic lights recently stopped working in the city of Yakutsk.
Bush fires are raging across Australia, fueled by a record-shattering heat wave. Pakistan was inundated by unexpected flooding in September. A vicious storm bringing rain, snow and floods just struck the Middle East. And in the United States, scientists confirmed this week what people could have figured out simply by going outside: last year was the hottest since records began.
“Each year we have extreme weather, but it’s unusual to have so many extreme events around the world at once,” said Omar Baddour, chief of the data management applications division at the World Meteorological Organization, in Geneva. “The heat wave in Australia; the flooding in the U.K., and most recently the flooding and extensive snowstorm in the Middle East — it’s already a big year in terms of extreme weather calamity.”
I have a feeling that this year we might experience temperatures unseen until now on planet Earth in places where it shouldn't be.
climate change is described in terms of average changes in temperature or precipitation, but most of the social and economic costs associated with climate change will result from shifts in the frequency and severity of extreme events.1 This fact is illustrated by a large number of costly weather disasters in 2010, which tied 2005 as the warmest year globally since 1880.2 Incidentally, both years were noted for exceptionally damaging weather events, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the deadly Russian heat wave in 2010. Other remarkable events of 2010 include Pakistan’s biggest flood, Canada’s warmest year, and Southwest Australia’s driest year. 2011 continued in similar form, with “biblical” flooding in Australia, the second hottest summer in U.S. history, devastating drought and wildfires in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona as well as historic flooding in North Dakota, the Lower Mississippi and in the Northeast.3
Indeed we will have a very interesting summer.
I couldn't agree more. I think we're in for one hell of a summer! It's too bad you'll have the skeptics here attempting to derail your thread by saying there's nothing unusual going on and that temps aren't rising despite all the information you provide in your OP to the contrary!
SXUS74 KAMA 241411
RECORD EVENT REPORT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AMARILLO TX
0907 AM CDT SUN MAR 24 2013
...RECORD LOW TEMPERATURE BROKEN AT DALHART...
THE LOW TEMPERATURE AT DALHART REACHED 14 DEGREES THIS MORNING AT
723. THIS BREAKS THE OLD RECORD OF 15 WHICH WAS SET IN 1974. THE
FINAL RECORD FOR TODAY WILL BE PUBLISHED AFTER 100 AM ON MARCH 25.
SXUS99 KSLC 251522 CCA
RECORD EVENT REPORT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SALT LAKE CITY UT
920 AM MDT MON MAR 25 2013
...RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES REPORTED FOR MARCH 24TH...
STATION NEW RECORD OLD RECORD YEAR
ALTA 17 18 1965
LAKETOWN 27 30 1965
UTAH TEST RANGE 40 44 1996
PRICE 42 43 1983
PINE VIEW DAM 33 36 2009
RANDOLPH 30 32 2008
...RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURES REPORTED FOR MARCH 25TH...
STATION NEW RECORD OLD RECORD YEAR
ALPINE 18 19 1995
CAPITOL REEF NATL PARK 22 25 1996
PRICE 18 20 1983
RANDOLPH 6 10 2008
The Great Green Con no. 1: The hard proof that finally shows global warming forecasts that are costing you billions were WRONG all along
The Mail on Sunday today presents irrefutable evidence that official predictions of global climate warming have been catastrophically flawed.
The graph on this page blows apart the ‘scientific basis’ for Britain reshaping its entire economy and spending billions in taxes and subsidies in order to cut emissions of greenhouse gases. These moves have already added £100 a year to household energy bills.
Steadily climbing orange and red bands on the graph show the computer predictions of world temperatures used by the official United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The estimates – given with 75 per cent and 95 per cent certainty – suggest only a five per cent chance of the real temperature falling outside both bands.
But when the latest official global temperature figures from the Met Office are placed over the predictions, they show how wrong the estimates have been, to the point of falling out of the ‘95 per cent’ band completely.
The graph shows in incontrovertible detail how the speed of global warming has been massively overestimated. Yet those forecasts have had a ruinous impact on the bills we pay, from heating to car fuel to huge sums paid by councils to reduce carbon emissions.
The eco-debate was, in effect, hijacked by false data. The forecasts have also forced jobs abroad as manufacturers relocate to places with no emissions targets.
A version of the graph appears in a leaked draft of the IPCC’s landmark Fifth Assessment Report due out later this year. It comes as leading climate scientists begin to admit that their worst fears about global warming will not be realised.
Academics are revising their views after acknowledging the miscalculation. Last night Myles Allen, Oxford University’s Professor of Geosystem Science, said that until recently he believed the world might be on course for a catastrophic temperature rise of more than five degrees this century.