LCA is the world's smallest, light weight, multi-role supersonic combat aircraft. It has been designed to meet the requirements of Indian Air Force
as its frontline multi-mission single-seat tactical aircraft.
It is India's second indeginous fighter, the first one being the 1960's HF-24(Hindustan Fighter) 'Marut'. 129 Marut fighters were manufactured.
Marut had limited supersonic capability (It could go supersonic in dives). The LCA will be the first supersonic combat aircraft to be built and flown
in India itself. Interestingly, the requirements of both LCA and HF-24 and very similar. India had previously attempted to build a supersonic fighter
: the HF-73, a development of the Marut. HF-73 was to use engines with more power. The project was cancelled after a crash.
LCA can be inducted starting 2006 into the Indian Air Force (IAF) in limited numbers, though 'full-scale' induction won't happen anytime before
The idea for this plane was born in 1983. It's development has been an extremely painful process. The Indians had to develop most of the workings
themselves, with some 'hand holding' by foreign firms. The US sanctions following their nuclear blasts only worsened the situation.
If the LCA succeeds, India may go ahead with development of the MCA, a stealthy twin-engined jet.
On 4th January 2001, India's 'Light Combat Aircraft' or LCA flew for the first time. The maximum speed achieved was 400 kph and the maximum
altitude was 3,000 m. The 18 min long test flight was performed by Wing Commander Rajiv Kothiyal. This plane was the LCA TD-1 and was given the serial
number 'KH2001'. 'KH' stands for Kota Harinarayana - Director of ADA while 'TD' stands for Technology Demonstrator. LCA TD-1 was powered by a
General Electic F404-F2J3 turbofan.
The LCS's official name is "Tejas" .The word is 'LCA' is used in the same way 'ATF' is for F-22 Raptor.
If all goes well, LCA will go supersonic after atleast 100 hrs of flight testing. A minimum of 2000 flying hrs is needed to certify it ready for
production. The first flight of TD-2 signalled the completion of the first 12 hrs. The development phase involving two technology demonstrators is
estimated to have cost Rs. 21.88 billion.
Why India needs the LCA
The IAF heavily relies on the 1950's design MiG-21 to maintain its numbers, if not its effective force. The LCA was essentially envisioned as a
replacement for it. Delays in LCA's development have caused a lot of problems - The MiGs are old, and unforgiving - pilots are losing their lives
each year. Such is its reputation, that it is now called 'the flying coffin' in the pilot's mess.
Part of the problem also arose from the fact that the IAF had to rely on the sub-sonic Kiran jet trainer for pilot's training for last 15 years of
the 20th Century. The junior pilots had to jump right from the Kiran to the bisonic MiG. IAF's MiG-21Us are aeging too and limits the performance of
these aircraft. It is not surprising that most deaths were those of young pilots. Only recently did the Government decide to acquire Hawk AJTs
[Advanced Jet Trainer] from Britain. However, even after intense negotiations an agreement could not be worked out and acquisition of an AJT has been
postponed to the unforseeable future.
During the decade 1990-2000 the IAF lost 172 MiG series aircraft in crashes, much more than its losses in wartime operations.During the two wars with
Pakistan in 1965 and 1971 as well as the Kargil border conflict of 1999, the Indian Air Force lost a total of 115 aircraft. From 1995-2000 alone, the
losses due to aircraft involved in accidents amounted to Rs 2.74 billion. During the same period, 52 pilots lost their lives in accidents. India has
paid a very heavy price for LCA delays.
An $340 million upgrade program was started in 1996. These new aircraft are called MiG-21-93 in Russia and MiG-21UPG in India. While some will be
upgraded in Russia, most upgradation will be done in India itself. The deal was meant to be completed within two years but the first two upgraded
MiG-21-93 jets were only delivered to India in December 2000. The first 2 upgraded MiGs done in India were shipped to the IAF in May 2001. These new
aircraft have a mix of French, Israeli, Indian and Russian equipment. It is claimed that the fighters are equivalent to any 4th Generation fighter,
with the ability to lock on to 8 different targets at once. The upgrading of the 125 MiG-21s is now slated for 2005, with the implementation of the
plan expected to enable the IAF to extend the life of the jets uptil 2015.
Apart from the MiG-21, LCA will also replace MiG-23 and MiG-27, also in service with the IAF.
Will the LCA itself be obsolete by 2015? Certainly not considering India's main rivals, China and the Pakistan fly aircraft like the Chinese F-7(a
copy of MiG-21). Other Chinese fighters include the FC-1 (Fighter China 1) and the J-10(F-10 for foreign markets).
FC-1 is based on the MiG-33 which was rejected by the Soviet Air Force. MiG-33 was a single engined version of MiG-29. Pakistan hopes to buy 150 of
them to replace most of its existing air force while the Chinese Air Force does not want to purchase it. Lastest reports say that FC-1 may never enter
production - Russia has refused to supply the powerful RD-93 engine. Pakistan has given the FC-1 the 'Super-7' designation.
FC-1 has not been flown. Chengdu is working on it though, and models have been displayed at many exhibitions. While FC-1 design itself is not very
advanced, the fact is that China will buy many avionics components from outside and hence has the capability of getting the FC-1 into active service
much before the LCA. However, recent reports suggest that it might now be replaced by a different design : J-7MF (a Chinese MiG-21 upgrade).
The J-10 started off as a chinese attempt at reverse engineering a Pakistan bought US F-16. However, it ended up being a modification of Israel's
Lavi (Young Lion) multirole fighter. Lavi program was cancelled in 1987 in Israel due to political reasons. A J-10 crash in 1995 forced a shift
manufacturing plans till atleast 2005 (flights resumed in 1998). The J-10 is believed to be powered by 122.6kN (27,650 lb) Saturn AL-31F turbofans
Interestingly, both LCA and J-10 are due to serve on indigenous Indian and Chinese aircraft carriers, both set to sail by 2010.
Two other contemporary aircraft began in the same period (1982/83): the European Eurofighter Typhoon and Swedish Jas-39 Gripen. The eurofighter first
flew in March 1994 while Gripen took off in December 1988. Gripen joined squadron in 1998(making it the first new 4th generation fighter of the world)
while Eurofighter will in 2002. Both faced problems with their digital flight control systems which enable the inherently unstable delta-wing aircraft
to fly by using computers to command its flight control surfaces and provide unusual moaneuverability to the jets. Both are being promoted in the
foreign markets. JAS-39 has already been chosen by the South African Air Force as their backbone. It is infact regarded as a direct competition to the
Indians have boldly claimed that the "LCA has more advanced technology than JAS- 39 Gripen and as much advanced technology as the Typhoon." And if
it does, then it needs to be proved on the ground and in flight.
LCA has a double delta wing configuration with no tailplanes or foreplanes and features a single vertical fin. The LCA is constructed of
aluminium-lithium alloys, carbon-fibre composites, and titanium. It's design has been configured to match the demands of modern combat scenario such
as speed, acceleration, maneuverability and agility. Other features of the design include Short takeoff and landing, excellent flight performance,
safety, damage-tolerant design, reliability and maintainability.
According to current estimates, the LCA will cost about $17-$20 million and efforts are being made to bring down the cost to $15 million. At this
price the LCA has considerable bang for buck value. In comparison, a Su-30 fetches $35 million per piece for Russia, while France's Rafale cost $70+
It integrates modern design concepts and the state-of-art technologies such as relaxed static stability, flyby-wire Flight Control System, Advanced
Digital Cockpit, Multi-Mode Radar, Integrated Digital Avionics System and a Flat Rated Engine.
Around 70% of the jet is to be made in India itself. The rest will have to be imported for sometime. No mistake must be made with regards to LCA's
modernity and design. It is truly advanced and has all the necessary equipment and more.
A naval carrier based version of LCA is also being developed. This version will feature a strengthened undercarriage and sturucture, additional
leading edge control surfaces (in the area where the wing joins the fuselage) and lowered nose for better visibility. News reports suggest that US
help has been sought for the LCA Navy. The 8th and 9th LCA prototypes built will be Naval version.
Among the most significant breakthrough is the use of advance carbon composites for more than 40% of the LCA air frame, including wings, fin and
fuselage. Apart from making it much lighter, there are less joints or rivets making the aeroplane more reliable. Fatigue strength studies on computer
models optimise performance. National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) has played a lead role. Materials include Aluminium - Lithium alloys , Titanium alloy
and Carbon compositites. Composities for wing (skin , spars and ribs ) fuselage (doors and skins), elevons, fin, rudder, airbrakes and landing gear
The skin of the LCA measures 3 mm at its thickest with the average thickness varying between 2.4 to 2.7 mm. BAe was consulted. The fin for the LCA is
a monolithic honeycomb piece. No other manufacturer is known to have made fins out of a single piece. The cost of manufacture reduces by 80 per cent
from Rs 2.5 million in this process. This is contrary to a subtractive or deductive method normally adopted in advanced countries, when the shaft is
carved out of a block of titanium alloy by a computerized numerically controlled machine. A 'nose' for the rudder is added by 'squeeze'
A striking feature of the LCA is its small size. It is much smaller than even the JAS-39, which a ~1m longer. An effort was made to reduce the number
of individual composite parts to the minimum and hence keep the plane light.
The use of composites results in a 40 per cent reduction in the total number of parts (if the LCA were built using a metallic frame): For instance,
3,000 parts in a metallic design would come down to 1,800 parts in a composite design. The number of fasteners has been reduced to half in the
composite structure from 10,000 in the metallic frame. The composite design helped to avoid about 2,000 holes being drilled into the airframe. Though
the weight comes down by 21 per cent, the most interesting prediction is the time it will take to assemble the LCA -- the airframe that takes 11
months to build can be done in seven months using composites.
When lightning strikes the LCA, four metal longerons stretching from end to end, afford protection. In addition, all the panels are provided with
copper mesh. One out of five is 'bonding' bolt with gaskets to handle Electr-Magnetic Interference. Aluminum foils cover bolt heads while the fuel
tank is taken care of with isolation and grounding.
LCA is expected to be highly maneuverable by virtue of its double delta wing and relaxed static unstability of its Fly-By-Wire system.
Flight Control and Software and Other Avionics
The LCA uses advanced digital fly-by-wire technology which essentially employs computers to optimise the aircraft's performance. Foreign companies
were consulted. Infact, LCA avionics were first flight tested on a US F-16XL.
Witout the automatic flight control, the LCA will not be flyable, due to the Delta wing's inherent instability. As more and more flights are
conducted, the software is updated to allow the aircraft to do more complex maneuvours.
To combat the threat of obsolescence in the LCA Programme, a concerted effort has been made to introduce an Open-architecture Avionics system which
permits hardware scalability and upgradability to state-of-the-art technology levels with reusability of the software.
LCA Avionics architecture is configured around a three bus system (MIL-STD-1553B) in a distributed environment. The heart of the system is a 32-bit
Mission Computer (MC) which performs mission oriented computations, flight management, reconfiguration / redundancy management and in-flight system
self-tests. In compliance with MIL-STD-1521 and 2167A standards, Ada language has been adopted for mission computer software.Accurate navigation and
guidance is realised through RLG based Inertial Navigation System (INS) with provision for INS / Global Positioning System (GPS) integration. Jam
resistant radio commumication system with advanced Electronic Warfare (EW) environment. In the EW suite, Electromagnetic and Electroptic receivers and
jammers provide the necessary "soft-kill" capability.
The digital FBW system of the LCA is built around a quadruplex redundant architecture to give it a fail op-fail op-fail safe capability. It employs a
powerful Digital Flight Control Computer (DFCC) comprising four computing channels, each powered by an independent power supply and all housed in a
single line replaceable unit (LRU). The system is designed to meet a probability of loss of control of better than 1x10-7 per flight hour. The DFCC
channels are built around 32-bit microprocessors and use a safe subset of Ada language for the implementation of software. The DFCC receives signals
from quad rate, acceleration sensors, pilot control stick, rudder pedal, triplex air data system, dual air flow angle sensors, etc. The DFCC channels
excite and control the elevon, rudder and leading edge slat hydraulic actuators. The computer interfaces with pilot display elements like
multifunction displays through MIL-STD-1553B avionics bus and RS 422 serial link.
For maintenance the aircraft has more than five hundred Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), each tested for performance and capability to meet the severe
operational conditions to be encountered.
Mission Computer(MC): MC performs the central processing functions apart from performing as Bus Controller and is the central core of the Avionics
system. The hardware architecture is based on a dual 80386 based computer with dual port RAM for interprocessor communication. There are three dual
redundant communication channels meeting with MIL-STD-1553B data bus specifications. The hardware unit development was done by ASIEO, Bangalore and
Software Design & Development by ADA.
Control & Coding Unit (CCU): In the normal mode, CCU provides real time I/O access which are essentially pilot's controls and power on controls for
certain equipment. In the reversionary mode, when MC fails, CCU performs the central processing functions of MC. The CCU also generates voice warning
signals. The main processor is Intel 80386 microprocessor. The hardware is developed by RCI, Hyderabad and software by ADA.
Display Processors (DP): DP is one of the mission critical software intensive LRUs of LCA. The DP drives two types of display surfaces viz. a
monochrome Head Up display (HUD) and two colour multifunction displays (MFDs). The equipment is based on four Intel 80960 microprocessors. There are
two DPs provided (one normal and one backup) in LCA. These units are developed by ADE, Bangalore
Mission Preparation & Data Retrieval Unit (MPRU): MPRU is a data entry and retrieval unit of LCA Avionics architecture. The unit performs mission
preparation and data retrieval functions. In the preparation mode, it transfers mission data prepared on Data Preparation Cartridge (DPC) with the
help of ground compliment, to various Avionics equipment. In the second function, the MPRU receives data from various equipment during the Operational
Flight Program (OFP) and stores data on Resident Cartridge Card (RCC). This unit is developed by LRDE, Bangalore.
USMS Electronic Units: The following processor based digital Electronics Units (EU) are used for control and monitoring, data logging for fault
diagnosis and maintenance.
Environment Control System Controller (ECSC)
Engine and Electrical Monitoring System Electronics Unit (EEMS-EU)
Digital Fuel Monitoring System Electronics Unit (DFM-EU)
Digital Hydraulics and Brake Management System Electronics Unit (DH-EU)
V/UHF Equipment: V/UHF equipment is a secure jam resisant airborne radio communication set which provides simplex two way voice and data communication
in the VHF and UHF frequency bands. This unit is developed by HAL, Hyderabad.
Multi Function Keyboard (MFK): MFK is an interfce for pilot dialogue concerning certain selected equipment of Avionics system. It comprises LCD panel,
alphanumeric keys, push buttions for power ON / OFF and LEDs indicating power ON / OFF status of certain Avionics equipment. This unit is developed by
Head Up Display (HUD): HUD is of conventional type with a Total Field of View (TFOV) of 24 degrees circular. A Change Coupled Device (CCD) based
camera is mounted on the HUD for recording purposes. HUD dsplays various navigation and weapon related data. This unit is developed by CSIO,
Colour Multi Function Displays (MFDs): LCD based colour MFDs hava a useful screen area of 125 mm x 125 mm. They have soft keys around their periphery
for interaction with the systems. This display provides various aircraft system pages and navigation pages in addition to RADAR & FLIR display.
Digital fly-by-wire Flight Control System is another advanced feature of LCA. The unstable configuration of LCA demands a highly efficient Integrated
Flight Control System (IFCS) to fly the aircraft. Control law resident in the flight control computer synthesises inputs from pilot's stick and
rudder pedals with flight parameters from inertial and airdata measurements to generate commands to the actuators that move various control surfaces.
The design of the control law is evaluated susing real-time flight simulator for acceptable flight handling qualities. The IFCS ensures stability,
agility, manoeuvrability and carefree handling over the entire operating envelope of LCA. The Digital Flight Control Computer (DFCC) is the heart of
IFCS, and uses a quadruplex redundant system to achieve high reliability and safety.
Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) activity is an integral part of the Software development process. From requirement specification to
final testing, IV&V ensures correctness, consistency, completeness and adherence to MIL standards of the software.
The flight control system along with all the associated software is tested and validated at the iron-bird rig.
Its new-generation glass cockpit has the latest avionics systems for pilot comfort and efficiency. No tangle of dials and switches. Multi-function
digital displays provide information of all vital parameters with the click of a button. Critical information is flashed on the head-up display.
Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) and NAL were major partner in these developments.
Two Multi Function Displays present required information to the pilot. Critical information required in close combat situations is flashed onto the
Head Up Display. Hands on Throttle and Stick (HOTAS) concept ensures availability of every control needed during a critical combat situation, right
under the fingers of the pilot. The Environmental Control System (ECS) is designed to give a high degree of comfort to the pilot and to provide
adequate cooling to all onboard electronic systems. The compressed air for pressurisation of cockpit, radar and fuel tank is also supplied by ECS.
ADA has also tied up with India's National Institute of Design (NID), Ahemdabad to bring in the elements of ergonomics and modular design. The aim is
to help build the aircraft in such a manner that it has more standardised units or dimensions allowing increased flexibility. The NID design team for
this project will be lead by Dr S Ghosal who is the director of NID's Bangalore centre.
The LCA has a choice of seven pylons three under each wing and one under its fuselage to carry a wide range of armoury. It is designed to be a
precision launch platform with air-to-air missiles and air-to-ground weapons, including laser guided bombs. A total of 4000 kg can be carried. Plenty
of work to be done. It is expected that the R-73 (AA-12 Archer) will be integrated into the PV-1.
LCA will be armed with a Gasha Gsh-23mm gun. The R-73 will be directed by a Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) ensuring quick action. It is not clear what
medium range AAMs it will carry - the IAF currently operates the Matra Super 530D, R-27RE1 and RVV-AE(R-77) BVR missiles. The choice depends a lot on
the radar, unlike dogfight missiles which are usually heat seeking. For example, IAF has integrated both Magic-2 and R-60MK with the MiG-21. A range
of weapons, from Russia, West or India will be made available.
A total of 7 hardpoints will be available: 3 on each wing plus one under the fuselage.
As the name itself suggests, LCA's delivery capacity will not be high compared to say the Su-30, but it can carry as much as the MiG-2ML, which the
IAF's primary Close Air Support (CAS) fighter. Hence even with LCA's multi-role capability the IAF will need a 'bigger' fighter - the Su-30MKI
Super Flanker has already been picked as its frontline fighter for the first Quater of the 21st Century.
The multi-mode radar is to take care of detection, tracking, terrain mapping and delivery of guided weapons. The track-while-scan feature keeps track
of multiple targets (maximum 10) and also allows simultaneous multiple target engagement. Pulse-Doppler gives the look-down shoot-down capability.
Ground mapping feature, frequency agility and other ECCM techniques make the radar truly state-of-the-art.
The antenna is a light weight (less than 5 kg), low profile slotted waveguide array with a multilayer feed network for broad band operation. The
salient technical features are: two plane monopulse signals, low side lobe levels and integrated IFF, and GUARD and BITE channels. The heart of MMR is
the signal processor, which is built around VLSI-ASICs and i960 processors to meet the functional needs of MMR in different modes of its operation.
Its role is to process the radar receiver output, detect and locate targets, create ground map, and provide contour map when selected. Post-detection
processor resolves range and Doppler ambiguities and forms plots for subsequent data processor. The special feature of signal processor is its
real-time configurability to adapt to requirements depending on selected mode of operation.
To be jointly developed by State owned HAL and Electronics Radar Development Establishment (ERDE) the project has run into major delays and cost
Two Avro aircraft - HS748M have been modified for the purposes of testing the radar. The idea of doing these tests on an Avro is that these planes can
fly for a longer time and hence collect a lot more data.
PV-2 is planned to be equipped with the Radar and Fire Control System (FCS).
Engine & Fuel System
Kaveri engine is a two-spool bypass turbofan engine having three stages of transonic low pressure compressor driven by a single-stage low pressure
turbine. The core engine consists of six-stage transonic compressor driven by single-stage cooled high pressure turbine. The engine is provided with a
compact annular combustor with airblast atomisers. The aerothermodynamic and mechanical designs of engine components have been evolved using many
in-house and commercially developed software for solid and fluid mechanics.
Kaveri three-stage transonic fan, designed for good stall margin and bird strike capability, handles an air mass flow of 78 kg/s and develops a
pressure Combustion Chamber Liner ratio of 3.4. The six-stage variable capacity transonic compressor of Kaveri develops a pressure ratio of 6.4. The
variable schedule of inlet guide vanes and two rows of stator is through FADEC control system to open the stator blades in a predetermined manner.
High intensity low UD ratio annular combustor of Kaveri engine incorporates air blast injection of fuel for uniform outlet temperature profile and
reduced carbon emission.
Kaveri high pressure turbine is provided with an efficient cooling design incorporating augmented convection-cum-film cooling for the vanes and
combination cooling for the rotor blade to handle up to 1700 K turbine entry temperature. Kabini engine comprising high pressure compressor, combustor
and high pressure turbine has undergone high altitude test at facilities abroad successfully demonstrating the flat rating concept of Kaveri engine
assembly and in particular the combustor high altitude ignition and stability performances.
Kaveri engine has been specifically designed for Indian environment. The engine is a variable cycle-flat-rated engine in which the thrust drop due to
high ambient, forward speed is well compensated by the increased turbine entry temperature at the spool Kabini altitude test speed. This concept has
been already demonstrated with high temperature and pressure condition in DRDO's High Mach Facility. Kaveri engine is controlled by Kaveri full
authority digital control unit [KADECU), which has been developed and successfully demonstrated at DRDO's test bed.
Air-mass flow 78 kg/s
By-pass ratio 0.16
Overall pressure ratio 21.5
Turbine entry temperature 1487-1700 K
Maximum dry thrust 52 kN (5302 kg)
Maximum dry SFC 0.78 kg/hr/kg
After burner maximum power thrust 81 kN (8260 kg)
After burner maximum power SFC 2.03 kg/hr/kg
Thrust-to-weight ratio 7.8
The State owned Gas Turbine Research Establishment [GTRE] was to indigenously develop the Kaveri engine to power the LCA. But there have been major
slippages in all the milestones apart from cost overruns of Rs 380 crore. It is difficult work but is finally getting underway.
It was initially expected that a LCA (PV-1) with a Kaveri engine will fly in 2002 - it now seems unlikely it will. GRTE has made four Kaveri engines
and one of these, the K4, will be sent to Russia [which has inexpensive testing facilities] for high-altitude tests in the second half of 2001. The
test-bed is a Tupolew Tu-16 bomber. These airborne tests will allow Indian scientists to study the functioning of the engine in flight. Some 80 hrs of
airborne testing and around 1000 hrs of ground testing had been completed by February 2001. Atleast 1000 hrs of flight testing are needed for
The Jet Fuel Starter [JFS] GTSU-110 is indigenous and has the capability to provide in flight starting of the LCA main engine up to an altitude of 6
km. It has been successfully tested at Leh, which has the world's highest altitude airport.
It is now clear that the LCA will be inducted initially with GE engines and later be upgraded with the Kaveri. It is now certain that atleast the
first couple of PVs will be powered by the F404.
Fuel tanks are integrated into the fuselage and wings. For extended range, additional 800 lt / 1200 lt fuel tanks are carried at midboard / inboard
wing stations and also at centreline station under the fuselage. The inflight refuelling probe further extends the range and endurance.
The GE F404 is a rather popular engine: F/A-18 Hornet, F-117 Nighthawk and even the famed B-2 Stealth bomber is powered by (Four) F404s! The JAS-39
too is powered by a modification of the F404 made by Volvo. When the Rafale prototype first flew, it too had the GE F404 engines. The Rafale has
entered service with the M88 and infact the M88 has been offered to India. Now that the sanctions are gone, it is unlikely that either the M88 or the
other european counterpart EJ200 (used in the Eurofighter and perhaps later in the JAS-39) will ever be seen in the LCA. Snecma however, is
collaborating with GTRE to develop the Kaveri.
Stealth is an important feature for all new combat aircraft coming up. LCA does not have any stealth charactristics like in F-117 or F-22, but
considering its small size, tail-less design and simple delta wing config, a GE-404 engine(atleast for now) - which is also used in the F-117 - it
should be stealthier that atleast a MiG-21 or MiG-23/27. It is also expected that LCA will get DRDO developed Radar-absorbent paint. Composites are
inherently stealthier than metal.
The development effort for the LCA is lead by ADA. Apart from govt labs and agencies, many educational institutes and private companies also have a
role. A list of some of the government agencies involved in the LCA and MCA projects:
Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA)
Aeronautical Defense Establishment (ADE)
Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
National Aerospace Laboratries (NAL)
Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE)
National Test Flight Centre (NTFC), Hosur (near Bangalore)
Electronic Radar Development Establishment (ERDE)
Council for scientific and Industrial Researh(CSIR)
Some of the people associated with LCA development:
ADA Programme Director: M.B.Verma
Programme Director,NFTC: Air Marshal Philip Rajkumar
Project Director,General Systems: K.G. Vivek
K.V.L.Rao, Project Director,Propulsion Systems
T.G.Pai, Project Director,Technology Development, LCA Navy
M.B.Verma, Project Director, General System
Director-General, Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA): Vasudeva Aatre
Test/Chase Pilots: Wing Commander Rajiv Kothiyal, Wing Commander R Nambiar, Wing Commander Banerjee
Director, National Institute of Advanced Studies: Roddam Narasimha(chairman of the committee that reviewed the LCA in 1990)
HAL Chairman: C.G. Krishnadas Nair
NID LCA Team Leader: Dr S Ghosal
Head of Advanced Composites Unit,NAL: M.Subba Rao
Director-General (CSIR): Dr R.A Mashelkar