reply to post by Tetryonics
At some stage a decision has to be made regarding determining an exact value for Planck’s Constant
– there are two paths to its determination.
1. An empirical measurement of the atomic weights of Carbon or Oxygen
[as was the case historically] or,
2. A means of determining an exact value from theory must be developed.
Option 1 has the following problems:
It is an empirical measurement of quantum mass-Energies that cannot exclude the mass-Energy contributions to the measured system through sources of
blackbody radiation, heat, kinetic energies etc. Even at Absolute Zero any means of measurement will, by necessity introduce energies into the system
being measured in order to measure it.
Additionally, their remains the problem of obtaining an exact mole of any element free of isotopes etc that will affect the measurement and the
determination of an exact value for any particular element.
Historically, Chemists used 1/12 of 12 grams of Carbon as the best estimate of an atomic mass close to that of a Hydrogen atom, while for a period
Physicists sought to establish 1/16 of Oxygen as an alternative.
Both of these approaches are not accurate as all elements are made up of Deuterium nuclei not Hydrogen atoms with the result in either case being a
weighted (or averaged) molar mass [with 1/2 electron masses]
Even the use of diatomic Hydrogen gas will introduce errors as the atoms will still have binding, and kinetic energies as well as elemental isotopes
within the gas under measurement.
Many methodologies are currently employed by Physicists and Chemists around the World in an attempt to refine this value - many introducing addition
constants and variables to the atoms under measurement
Option 2 - Determining Planck’s exact mass-energy momenta value from theory
Tetryonics, offers an alternative, purely theoretical approach to that outlined above and historically used.
Using Tetryonic geometry we can quickly calculate from theory an exact Compton frequency of Planck quanta comprising the mass-energies of the REST
Matter of any element or compound:
Leptons are 12pi charged geometries with n1 energy levels
E = h*[v=1.2 e20] e mass = E/c^2
Baryons are 36pi charged geometries with n25 energy levels
E = h*[v=2.25 e23] H mass = E/c^2
[Thus determining the exact rest mass for each particle , exclusive of any additional energies of Black body radiation – kinetic motion or
measurement etc fro theory alone]
We cab now define Avogadro’s [N]umber to be the number of rest mass Hydrogen atoms in 1 gram (thus additionally implying that the inverse of
Hydrogen’s mass will now also be equal to N)
Avogadro [6.022141579 e23] = N = [1.660538841 kg -1] H atom
From Tetryonic geometry we can use this defined mass for the rest mass of a single Hydrogen atom and divide by the Compton frequency of Hydrogen
2.2512 e23 [2.25 e23 + 1.2 e19] to determine a value for Planck’s Constant directly from theory [exclusive of weighting and other non-rest
mass energies]
Solving for Planck’s constant from this rest mass of Hydrogen we get:
h = 6.629697947 e-34 J.s
This value is exclusive of any additional heat-kinetic energies and energies of measurement used and is the exact mass-Energy of a Proton & electron
[not a P+½ electron using 1/12 C or 1/16 O methods]
Any deviation from this value must represent the energies introduced by any empirical measurement and/or the combined inaccuracies introduced by any
measurement device or ill-defined physical constants used in determining the mass-energies of the system under study.
This value can then be applied in many additional ways, in conjunction with Tetryonic theory, to determine the rest and molar mass-energies of any
element of compound and allow Chemists to determine the stored ‘chemical’ energies in any element or compound.