Very nice ...about time some one gets the good stuff going
so many answers,so many questions.I dumb founded for know how.
: Mr. Subash Bose displays an ancient Tamil Pachesi board kept as a relic in the temple of his area. The Tamils and all the tribes of Meso-America, from Mexico to Panama, played the same board game: Pachesi.. viewzone2.com...
: The Meso-Americans called it by a linguistically similar name: Patolli. (Note: CH and T are linguistically similar. LL was the only way the Renaissance Spaniards could approximate the sounds of Z and J. This proves that Patolli derived from Pachesi.) I myself saw a Patolli board game at the National Museum of Costa Rica, in San Jose.
The pattern found on the surface of Liubo boards is also found on the most common type of Han Dynasty bronze mirror, known from their distinctive markings as TLV mirrors. There is some debate over whether the Liubo pattern on these mirrors was simply decorative, or whether it had a ritual significance, or whether perhaps the mirrors doubled as portable Liubo game boards. Zhou Zheng has pointed out that one TLV mirror dating to the reign of Wang Mang (9–23) has an inscription that includes the words "Carved with a Liubo board pattern to dispel misfortune" (刻具博局去[祛]不羊[祥]), which suggests that the main purpose of the Liubo pattern on mirrors was ritual, and that the pattern had a special significance beyond game-playing.-en.wikipedia.org...
BOTH THE MEXICAN INDIANS & TAMILS ATE TAMALES WITH THE SAME NAME!
The Tamils and Turks even gave some of their favorite dishes to the ancient Mexicans, and with the same names! I will name just two of them: Tamales and Corundas. The ancient Tamils were known as Tamils or Tamals. One of their favorite foods was a type of paste or filling wrapped in bamboo husk. Even in Tamil Nadu it is called Tamal. The Michoacanos have a similar triangular shaped tamal called Corunda. In Turkic it would be kur-unda (Turkic dough).
Pachinko (パチンコ?) is a mechanical game originating in Japan and is used as both a form of recreational arcade game and much more frequently as a gambling device, filling a Japanese gambling niche comparable to that of the slot machine in Western gaming.
Originally posted by diqiushiwojia
I've done some research on liubo (六博) and here is what I found.
Liu means six - that's a no-brainer. Bo means 'gamble'. In Ancient China, board games were seen as a form of gambling, so that is hardly surprising.
'Six' refers to the number of sticks used as the die. Some variants of the game use an actual die, and other variants use more than six sticks, but six sticks are the norm.
So there you have it - liubo is 'six [sticks] gamble'.
Chaturanga means 'four limbs/parts' but usually refers to armies in epics. (At least, that's what Wikipedia says. I don't speak Sanskrit.) This name has very little to do with 'six'. 'Chaturanga' and 'liubo' are not phonetically similar either. The Old and Middle Chinese for 'liubo' are something like 'liukpak' (cf. Cantonese lukbok). Moreover, chaturanga does not use dice. A similar game, chaturaji, uses dice but is a four-player game.
It seems that any connection with liubo must be through ashtapada. Both ashtapada and liubo are spiral race games.
Wikipedia, both Chinese and English
The Chinese version of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra also mentions the playing of several games, including Liubo, which some have taken as evidence that Liubo was transmitted to India.The Chinese version of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra also mentions the playing of several games, including Liubo, which some have taken as evidence that Liubo was transmitted to India.
There are many of these games that originated in India. The original may have been a game called an Ashtapada (an 8x8 uncheckered board).
One such game was chaturanga.
Interestingly the Sanskrit caturaṅga is a bahuvrihi compound, meaning "having four limbs or parts" Such as the other games mentioned above.
Chaturanga is the ancestor of our modern day chess. The next picture is of the chaturanga board.
So where did chaturanga come from?
It is believed that the game was developed from an ancient Chinese game called Liubo.
Liubo can be dated back to the middle of the 1st millennium BCE, and was immensely popular during the Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE).
Liubo is a mysterious ancient Chinese board game. Reportedly, the earliest surviving remnant of liubo dates from the Shang Dynasty circa 1500 BC. The name liubo comes from Chinese (liu = six, bo = sticks). Most historians believe that liubo was a battle game. The board is argued to be a cosmological, a calendar and a divination instrument. The rules of Liubo are still unknown.monroi.com...
Originally posted by Turkenstein
reply to post by Quadrivium
Very observant, on the knee detail.
All varieties of Quechua are very regular agglutinative languages, as opposed to isolating or fusional ones. Their normal sentence order is SOV (subject–object–verb). Their large number of suffixes changes both the overall significance of words and their subtle shades of meaning. Notable grammatical features include bipersonal conjugation (verbs agree with both subject and object), evidentiality (indication of the source and veracity of knowledge), a set of topic particles, and suffixes indicating who benefits from an action and the speaker's attitude toward it, although some languages and varieties may lack some of these characteristics.
The Mixe–Zoquean languages are head-marking and polysynthetic, with morphologically complex verbs and simple nouns. Grammatical subjects as well as objects are marked in the verb. Ergative alignment is used, as well as direct–inverse systems triggered by animacy and topicality. In Mixe–Zoquean verbs, a morphological distinction is made between two basic clause-types, independent and dependent; verbs take different aspectual and personal affixes, depending on the type of clause in which they appear. There are two different sets of aspect-markers, one used in dependent clauses and another used in independent clauses. Three aspects are distinguished within each clause-type: incompletive, completive, and irrealis.
The morphology of Mayan languages is simpler than that of other Mesoamerican languages, yet its morphology is still considered agglutinating and polysynthetic. Verbs are marked for aspect or tense, the person of the subject, the person of the object (in the case of transitive verbs), and for plurality of person. Possessed nouns are marked for person of possessor. There are no cases or genders in Mayan languages.
Proto-Mayan is thought to have had a basic verb–object–subject word order with possibilities of switching to VSO in certain circumstances, such as complex sentences, sentences where object and subject were of equal animacy and when the subject was definite. Today Yucatecan, Tzotzil and Tojolab'al have a basic fixed VOS word order. Mamean, Q'anjob'al, Jakaltek and one dialect of Chuj have a fixed VSO one. Only Ch'orti' has a basic SVO word order. Other Mayan languages allow both VSO and VOS word orders.
Mixe–Zoquean languages are characterized by complex syllabic nuclei made up of combinations of vowels together with the glottal stop and /h/ in the proto-language. Complex syllable-final consonant-clusters are also typical in the daughter languages and can be reconstructed for the proto-language.
Proto-Mixe–Zoquean syllable nuclei could be either:
V – short vowel
V' – short vowel with glottal stop
VV – long vowel
V'V – long vowel with medial glottal stop
VV' – long vowel with final glottal stop
Vh – short vowel with h
Proto-Mayan (the common ancestor of the Mayan languages as reconstructed using the comparative method) has a predominant CVC syllable structure, only allowing consonant clusters across syllable boundaries. Most Proto-Mayan roots were monosyllabic except for a few disyllabic nominal roots. Due to subsequent vowel loss many Mayan languages now show complex consonant clusters at both ends of syllables. Following the reconstruction of Lyle Campbell and Terrence Kaufman, the Proto-Mayan language had the following sounds; the sounds present in the modern languages are largely similar to this root set.