I was doing some research into the surface mineral mapping of the Earth, the other planets and their Moons. Most manned and unmanned space missions
have had instruments which can detect the shape and density of patches of various elements and minerals on the surface, from silicon-dioxide to iron
and just about everything else. In the standard model, when planets form they are molten balls of all the elements and minerals all mixed up, and they
'settle out' with the heavier stuff at the centre. Iron, and stuff like gold that readily mixes with iron should all be in the centre. The stuff on
the surface was supposedly every
brought by impactors, hence all the craters. But, thinking about it a little more, and knowing that the Sun has
flares and Coronal Mass Ejections, I got to thinking about CMEs that were many times more powerful than we see now, and realised that those CMEs do
put out iron ions and other heavy ions, and protons of course, which are hydrogen ions.
NASA has warned us about CMEs that could knock out satellites, and if they were strong enough, could knock out the power grid, perhaps so badly it
would take years to fix. With a strong enough CME I believe that a sputtering process would happen, where thin films of material are deposited on the
Earth surface, but depending on the particular CME, material could also be removed, also by sputtering, and ion etching, the process used to cut
channels in silicon chips during chip manufacture, could have removed a lot of material, forming the holes that filled with water later to become
Because ions leaving the Sun are deficient in electrons, they are 'hungry', and will suck in electrons to 'feed'. The rate at which the ions
acquire electrons determines the isotope of the material. So where can we find electrons? The Earth has lots of them, as do other planets and moons,
so when the hungry ions sense electrons, they head that way. This explains why the material in a CME accelerates as it leaves the Sun, it is being
attracted to electrons.
When the ions get close to Earth, they suck the electrons out of the ground, and electrons moving through the Earth will heat it up, down to great
depth if the ions are hungry enough. Also, the ionosphere of the Earth becomes highly charged, creating a very strong electric field gradient.
Normally the field gradient is between 100 and 300 volts per meter, though underneath thunderstorm regions it can go to a thousand or more volts per
meter, which can create St.Elmos Fire, or make your hair stand on end, though if your hair ever stands on end, it likely means you will very soon be
Electrical discharges occur when the voltages high up in the atmosphere get to the point where you have a breakdown in the 'insulation' that
surrounds the Earth, and you get a giant lightning bolt hitting the Earth. If this lightning bolt is big enough, you get a crater, and depending on
the amount of electricity there is stored in the ionosphere, you can have areas that are melted like happens in electric arc smelting. So, the craters
on Earth, and the Moon and all the other objects in the Solar system are probably from mega-lightning, and not asteroids hitting the surface, and all
caused by a massive CME. Stars like our Sun have been observed to have CMES that are between 100 and 10,000,000
times more powerful than
our Sun has ever done. Er, um, I think that would pretty well be the end of life on Earth, if it hit us. If it misses us, it would probably hit
another planet, maybe why Mars is so chewed up?
And if the experts are correct, there may have been a powerful CME about 13,000 years ago, and they seem to happen about every
Maybe there is something to this 2012 stuff? Pretty sure it would be quick and painless though, if that's any consolation.