Old article :
November 22, 2002
US to set up 'Big Brother' citizen database
From Elaine Monaghan and Tim Reid in Washington
THE Bush Administration is developing a computer system to monitor every Americans credit card transactions, phone calls and even borrowed library
books in an anti-terrorist measure denounced as the countrys most intrusive domestic spying network so far.
Critics of the Total Information Awareness System, development of which was confirmed yesterday, say it will give the Government unprecedented powers
to spy on citizens personal habits. Marc Rotenberg, executive director of the Electronic Privacy Information Centre, a civil liberties group, called
it the most sweeping plan to conduct surveillance on the public since at least the 1960s.
Its probably one of the most significant public profiling proposals in modern US history, he said. Theres a very fine line between protecting
homeland security and building a police state, and we are teetering on that line.
The project is being overseen by the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency. That is headed by retired Vice-Admiral John Poindexter, the National
Security Adviser during the Reagan Administration who was convicted of lying to Congress in the Iran-Contra arms scandal. The convictions were
overturned on appeal.
The agency will fund the development of technologies to allow the Government to track e-mail, internet use, travel, credit card purchases, phone and
bank records, medical files and every type of accessible private and public data into what the Pentagon described as one centralised grand database.
Edward Aldridge, Defence Under-Secretary, said: Tracking of potential terrorists and terrorist acts require that we search for clues of such
activities in a mass of data. The project was aimed at searching vast quantities of data to determine links and patterns indicative of terrorist
He added that the system would be part of the Bush Administrations new strategy of seeking to stop terrorists before they attack, rather than
treating terrorism as a law- enforcement issue.
Language that seems to authorise the project was buried in the Homeland Security Bill, which was approved by the Senate on Tuesday. The provision
faced some opposition on Capitol Hill, but Congress was largely supportive.
The programme has been bolstered by other recent developments and legislation. On Monday a special appeals court ruled that criminal prosecutors
should be able to request the bugging of suspected terrorists.
The ruling means that the FBI can monitor Americans even if they have no probable cause to think that a crime was committed, the previous legal
threshold. Federal agents have also benefited from last years USA Patriot Act, which vastly expands the FBIs ability to obtain personal information
on suspected terrorists.
The former Vice-President, Al Gore, said: We have always held out the shibboleth of Big Brother as a nightmare vision of the future that were going
to avoid at all costs. They have now taken the most fateful step in the direction of that Big Brother nightmare that any President has ever allowed to
Katie Corrigan, of the American Civil Liberties Union, said that the Bill authorised the most intrusive domestic spying network in American history.
For the first time, Americans can be tracked as they engage in mundane activities, Ms Corrigan said. Its a radical departure from the principle
that police can conduct surveillance only when there is evidence of wrongdoing.
Jan Miller, a spokeswoman for the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency, said: What were thinking is we dont want another September 11. So we
must not only connect the dots, but find them, know theyre dots we care about and connect them in such a way that we prevent future attacks. We
believe that there can be security with privacy.
Mr Aldridge said that information gathered with the technology would be subject to existing legal restrictions.
Moves on monitoring that worry civil liberties groups
Steps taken since September 11 in the US that have angered civil liberties groups:
Patriot Act, passed in October last year, greatly increases powers for intelligence agents to monitor citizens. It scrapped a previous requirement
that foreign Intelligence be the sole purpose for a Surveillance Act wiretap or search. Now requires only a significant purpose. Also allows
roving wiretaps on all telephones a terrorism suspect might use.
Bureau of Prisons ordered by US Justice Department to alter its rules to allow the monitoring of lawyer-client conversations without court order or
A presidential executive order setting up military tribunals for anyone deemed by the Justice Department to be an enemy combatant, for which there
is no legal definition. People held under such status can be held indefinitely, without access to a lawyer and without trial. The US Government
refuses to reveal how many are held under those terms.
On Monday a special appeals court issued a ruling that will allow criminal investigators to spy on Americans even if they have no probable cause to
think a crime has been committed. That decision overturned a lower court finding that proof of probable cause was needed to protect the privacy of
Americans against highly intrusive surveillance searches.
Total Information Awareness System, the development of a government super-computer. The Pentagon-funded project aims to monitor every Americans
internet use, reading habits, financial transactions and mental health history.