posted on Oct, 24 2004 @ 06:34 PM
You should remember that the Aztecs were a North American tribe that descended from the North. They became known as the Mexica and their arrival
coincided with the destruction of the Toltec empire. They then founded their own city on an island in the lake of Texcoco. After a neighboring
city-state controlled the city for a brief period, the Mexica formed a triple alliance with neighboring cit-states to overthrow the powerful
Azcapotzalco. After conqueringmany of the cultures in the lake, they assimilated these cultures into their own. They spread their influence far into
the reaches of modern day Mexico. Cortes arrived and destroys the city with angered city-states under Aztec control. Soon, Spaniards control the
Empire and rapidly spread their power.
• ca. 1100 Nahuatl-speaking peoples begin migrating toward central Mexico. They are led by their tribal god Huitzilopochtli ("Hummingbird on the
Left"), his image borne on a priest's shoulders. Aztlán ("Place of the Herons"), an island in a lake in west or northwest Mexico, is said to be
their point of origin.
• ca. 1175 The violent destruction of the central Mexican city of Tula coincides approximately with the arrival of Nahuatl-speaking peoples from
• ca. 1325 The Mexica people settle on a marshy island in the Basin of Mexico's Lake Texcoco after almost 200 years of wandering. Naming their city
Tenochtitlan, they build a sanctuary dedicated to their tribal/war god Huitzilopochtli and to the ancient rain god Tlaloc
• ca. 1371 In the Basin of Mexico, Tezozomoc (r. 1371–1426) becomes king at Azcapotzalco, then the most powerful city-state in the region. He assumes
control of neighboring Tenochtitlan and names Acamapichtli its king.
• ca. 1372 Acamapichtli (r. 1375–95) enlarges Tenochtitlan's main sanctuary, building two temple pyramids side by side. He forges political alliances
through strategic marriages.
• ca. 1391 Huitzilihuitl (r. 1396–1417), son and successor of Acamapichtli in Tenochtitlan, expands the economic and political power of the Mexica in
the Basin of Mexico, while remaining subordinate to Azcapotzalco
• ca. 1427 Tenochtitlan joins forces with two smaller cities, Tlacopan on the west and Texcoco on the east side of Lake Texcoco, to form the Triple
Alliance; together they defeat powerful Azcapotzalco and the Aztec empire begins. The Mexica of Tenochtitlan soon become the dominant force of the
• ca. 1431 The Main Temple of Tenochtitlan is enlarged for the third time. A date-glyph "4 Reed," located at the rear of the pyramid of the Temple
of Huitzilopochtli, marks this construction phase. Aztec military expansion throughout the Basin of Mexico progresses rapidly and building activity in
• ca. 1445 Under the ruler Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina (Motecuhzoma I, r. 1440–69), Aztec imperial domination spreads beyond the Basin. The Aztecs control
extensive land, labor, and valuable resources. Several hundred northern city-states are conquered and subject to heavy tribute payments.
• ca. 1450 Tzintzuntzan in western Mexico thrives, receiving large quantities of tributary goods from communities throughout the Tarascan empire. Five
keyhole-shaped pyramid platforms, called yácatas in the Tarascan language, make up the ceremonial heart of the city. They are faced with dressed
basalt and often covered with petroglyphs. The yácatas are dedicated to the Tarascan sun god Curicaueri, a deity similar to the Aztec patron god
• ca. 1454 In Tenochtitlan, further construction takes place at the Main Temple in the year "1 Rabbit" (1454 A.D.). The pyramid is embellished with
large-scale incense braziers and serpent heads. Cists are built on all four sides to receive thousands of offerings to honor the gods Tlaloc and
• ca. 1469 The Aztec empire continues to grow. At Castillo de Teayo, in the Huastec region of the northern Gulf Coast, an Aztec-style stepped pyramid
with a stone temple at its summit is constructed. Numerous freestanding sculptures, carved in local sandstone, represent Aztec deities and standard
• ca. 1473 Tenochtitlan conquers the small island city of Tlatelolco located to its north in Lake Texcoco. The two cities merge, becoming the most
densely populated urban center in Mesoamerica. It covers an area of approximately five square miles.
• ca. 1478 The expanding Tarascan and Aztec empires confront each other in battle, the Tarascans killing or wounding more than 20,000 Aztecs. A
frontier of empty land guarded by fortresses on each side is established between the two empires.
• ca. 1480 A superbly sculpted monument, depicting the dismembered body of Coyolxauhqui, sister of the Aztec tribal and war god Huitzilopochtli, is
placed at the foot of the stairway leading to his sanctuary at the Main Temple.
• ca. 1481 During the brief reign of Tizoc, a massive stone monument, known as the Tizoc Stone, is carved. Thirty conventionalized, stiff figures
depict victorious Aztec warriors in ritual attire grasping by the hair the leaders of conquered towns. The captives are identified by place-name
• ca. 1486 Aggressive expansion takes place under the rulership of Ahuitzotl (r. 1486–1502) when his armies subdue the peoples of the mountainous
lands of Guerrero and Oaxaca, substantially extending the tribute domain.
• ca. 1487 A greenstone plaque with the date "8 Reed" commemorates the completion of an enlargement of the main sanctuary in Tenochtitlan in 1487.
Large numbers of prisoners of war are taken to the imperial capital for ritual sacrifice.
• ca. 1490 The total number of inhabitants in the island city of Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco may have reached 200,000 or more. The bulk of the urban
population are workers, including craft specialists such as potters, goldsmiths, lapidaries, featherworkers, and stonemasons. They produce ceremonial
art and luxury goods of the finest quality for use by Aztec nobles in temples and palaces. The most important commercial center of central Mexico is
the great market of Tlatelolco.
• ca. 1502 Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Motecuzhoma II, r. 1502–20) is crowned king in Tenochtitlan. Like his predecessors he fails to conquer the
Tarascans in the west and the Tlaxcalans to the east of the Valley of Mexico.
• ca. 1518 Spaniards sailing from Cuba journey along the jungle coast of Tabasco where they encounter local chiefs wearing colorful cotton capes,
brilliant feather ornaments, and gold jewelry. They barter European glass beads for gold and supplies.
• ca. 1519 Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and about 500 soldiers land near the modern town of Cempoala in early 1519. They are met by Motecuhzoma's
emissaries, who offer exotic gifts including elaborate costumes, feather fans and headdresses, and jewelry of shell, turquoise, jade, and gold, hoping
to prevent the strangers from continuing to the imperial city. Cortés is also given a young woman named Malintzin or Malinche. Speaking both Nahuatl,
the language of central Mexico, and Chontal Maya, spoken on the coast, she becomes his translator, confidante, and consort. On August 16, 1519, Cortés
and his small army set off for Tenochtitlan.
• ca. 1520 Motecuhzoma II is taken prisoner in Tenochtitlan by Cortés and killed, but the Spaniards are forced to retreat.
• ca. 1521 The Spaniards ally themselves with the Tlaxcalans, long-time enemies of the Aztecs, and lay siege to island Tenochtitlan. After 93 days of
siege, the population is decimated by starvation, disease, lack of fresh water, and the massacre of thousands. On August 13, 1521, Cuauhtemoc
(1495?–1525), the last ruler of the Aztecs, is taken captive, the city completely leveled, and the Aztec empire falls to the Spanish conquerors.
• ca. 1522 Catholic churches and monasteries, as well as mansions for the new Spanish rulers, rise on the ruins of Aztec temples and shrines in
Tenochtitlan. The architecture shows a mixture of Romanesque, Gothic, and Renaissance styles.
• ca. 1524 The first twelve Franciscan friars arrive. They begin converting the indigenous population to the Catholic faith. Dominicans follow in
1526, the Augustinians in 1533, and the Jesuits in 1572.
• ca. 1525 The Spaniards destroy most indigenous painted manuscripts and documents, especially those of a ritual nature.
• ca. 1528 Spanish institutions impose controls over the Indian population. The encomienda, granted by the crown to deserving Spaniards, entitles them
to the labor and goods produced by the native group entrusted to them. Most encommenderos exploit the Indians and even enslave them.
• ca. 1530 Spanish plants and animals and a wide range of new materials and technologies are introduced. Metal tools and other implements replace
• ca. 1531 Legendary apparition of the dark-skinned Virgin of Guadalupe to the christianized Mexican Juan Diego on the hill of Tepeyac north or Mexico
City, the site of a former temple of the Aztec mother goddess Tonantzin.
• ca. 1535 The Viceroyalty of New Spain is established consisting of present-day Mexico, Central America, Florida, and parts of the Southwest United
States. Tenochtitlan, renamed Ciudad de México, is the capital of the Viceroyalty, and Antonio de Mendoza (1490–1552) is appointed the first
• ca. 1536 The Colegio Imperial de Santa Cruz is founded in Tlatelolco and run by Franciscan friars, The students, sons of the native nobility, are
instructed in European customs, Latin grammer, theology, liturgy, music, and other subjects. After four years of training, they return to their home
communities to assist in religious and civil administration
I want to add that this only a brief snapshot in the history of Latin America. Much more than this happened before the arrival of teh Mexica. The
Toltecs and Mayans were far more advanced then the Aztecs, but the Aztecs assimilated the traces of these cultures into their own, adapting calendars
and masonry. The cultures had many similarities to the Ancient cultures around the world, including stories of origins. Ancient Chinese symbols have
been found in temples. These cultures also used Hieroglyphs and worshipped many of the geometric patterns in the heavens.
Maybe these cultures trace back to one great culture?
[edit on 24-10-2004 by Decon]